September Birthstone

Sapphire is the birthstone for September. — The Sapphire is a transparent stone, of a sky-color, precious and very delightful to the eye. The herb Pilosella (also known as Mouse-ear hawkweed) in its flower, and the herb Scorpioides in its flower, have some resemblance of its beauty.

Hieronymus Cardanus makes Sapphire to be the fifth in order of the most noble gems, in his book «De subtilitate» (Basel, 1547); where he likewise said, that it is a stone of an excellent hardness of a ceruleus color and if not diluted or vicious, very pleasing to the eye, in so much as he said, that nothing doth so much recreate the sight as the Smaragde (Emerald) and Sapphire.

OF ITS NAME

The Sapphire is known almost to all nations by this one name «Sapphirus». In hebrew it is called «ספיר», as Exod. 28.18. and not only in Hebrew but in Greek «ζαφείρι», and in Latine it is called «Sapphirus»; in English «Saphire» (XVII c.) and in German «ein Saphir»; in Itatian «Zaffiro»; in French «Sapphyr»; in Spanish «el Zafiro piedra preciosa»; in Hindu language «नीलम» and Arabic «ياقوت أزرق» – «Nilas» and from the place where it growth «Podis», Marbodeus Gallus doth call it «Syrtites».

Sapphire is also the birthstone for Virgo

OF ITS FACULTIES & PROPERTIES

September Birthstone Sapphire

September Birthstone Sapphire. Credits to Gemteck1 @ Flickr

The Sapphire is of a cold and dry faculty even as are most precious stones; it is reported of it, that it is good against feverish distempers, hence this old dipstick.

The best of Sapphires are very comfortable to the eyes, if they be often looked one. It is reported of it, that if it be worn by an adulterer, by loosing its splendor it will discover his adultery; and that the wearing of Sapphire, does hinder the erections that are caused by Venus. But surely, as either lustful thoughts, or this wicked spirit Asmodeus moving them, or stirring up such disorders and irregularities without them, in the body, are the causes of such undue erections of the flesh; so when he withdraws himself, Sapphire has power to hinder them, and not before.

Many have written of the faculties of Sapphire as Galen, Pedanius Dioscorides, Hieronymus Cardanus, Garcias de Cisneros, and Maer the Poet (Aemilius Macer).

It is reported of it, that Sapphire is of so contrary a nature to poisons, that if it be put into a glass with a Spider, or laid upon the mouth of the glass, where the Spider is, the Spider will quickly die. And that Sapphire kept men chaste, and therefore is worn of Priests.

Anselmus Boetius said, that S. Jerome affirmed in his exposition of the 19 chapter of Isaiah, that the Sapphire being worn of any man, procured him favor with Princes, and with all men, pacified his enemies, free him from enchantments, and from bonds, and imprisonments, and that it looses men out of prison, and affwageth the wrath of God (Anselmus Boëtius de Boodt, p.49.).

OF ITS DIGNITY

For its sacred use Sapphire has been esteemed of great worth, as Exod. 28.18. And for its superstitions, the this caution use it with much circumspection.

Among the ancients, and with the Heathen, Sapphire has been of very great authority, because they sought it didn’t a little prevail with God.

The Gentiles consecrated Sapphire to Apollo, because in their enquiries at his oracle, if they had the presence of this gem with them, they imagined they had their answer the sooner.

It is desired of many for its excellent beauty; for it is fair like unto a serene sky: No better a description of its excellent beauty can you find, then that which is given of it, Exodus 24.9, 10. Where it is spoken after the manner of men (not as if the children of Israel saw any appearance of God in the form of man) That the children if Israel saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet, as it were a paved work of Sapphire, and as it were the body of haven in its clearness.

Sapphire through its blue color was the emblem of heaven, the firmament, truth, constancy, and fidelity. The Jewish priests wore robes and breast-plates of this color as significative of heaven.

The Hebrew Rabbis declare this to be the stone of which the rod of Moses and the Tables of the Law received on Mount Sinai were composed.

SAPPHIRE AS A MINERAL

The Oriental Sapphire, ranks the next in value to the Ruby; when perfect, its color is a clear and bright Prussian blue, united to a high degree of transparency. It seldom, however, occurs in this state, more generally the color is a pale blue,passing by degrees, into entirely colorless; not unfrequently, the pale varieties are further deteriorated by streaks and spots of a dark inky blue.

It occurs in rounded pieces, and, rarely, in crystals.of a small size, but for the most part, considerably larger than the Ruby. The primitive crystal of this substance, like that of the preceding gem, is a slightly acute rhomboid, the alternate angles of which measure 86° 38′ and 93° 22′: it also presents nearly the same varieties and modifications of its primitive form. When broken, it displays a conchoidal fracture, seldom exhibiting any appearance of a lamellar structure; in hardness it surpasses the ruby, and yields only to the Diamond. Its specific gravity varies from 4 to 4.1.

The pale, varieties when exposed to a strong fire become entirely colorless without undergoing any other alteration; after this, when cut and polished, they have been often sold for Diamonds; on, this, (some-what fraudulent) account, they bear a considerable value.

Another remarkable variety of Sapphire is the Asterias or Star-stone. This is a semi-transparent Sapphire, often with a reddish purple tinge, in which the summits of the primitive rhomboid are replaced by secondary planes that present a varying chatoyant luster.

The Sapphire in hardness comes next to the Diamond. It is one of the varieties of that vast genus the silex. Its chemical composition is pure alumina crystallized. The color most commonly understood to attach to the Sapphire is blue, and therefore the poets are wont to sing of Sapphire skies. It is also found occasionally gray, white, green and yellow.

In shape Sapphire is usually rhomboidal. Hauy names it the «telesie», and Bournon the «perfect corundum». Being silicious in its nature Sapphire approaches in its hardness close upon the Diamond, while, ill its blue species, it is very beautiful. The deep-blue Sapphire is named by the lapidaries the «male», and the pale-blue the «female».

It is acted upon by neither the acids nor the blowpipe. Sapphire is found mostly in the bells of rivers, especially in Ceylon and in the southern part of the Burman Empire.

OF ITS VALUE

Sapphire is valued according to the excellency of its color, beauty, purity, and greatness: on of the weight of four grains is worth many crowns. The best of Sapphires are as much worth as a Diamond of the same bigness.

Fine specimens bring high prices. The late Mr. Hope purchased one from the Parisian Jardin des Plantes, paying therefor the considerable sum of £3,000.

The French crown contains 59 of Sapphires.

A Sapphire weighing seventy-five and a half carats was sold, says D’r Feuchtwanger, at the auction of Messrs. Rundell & Bridges, for $2,405 (XIX c.).

August Birthstone Peridot

Peridot is the birthstone for August. — This species is divided into two subspecies, viz. Chrysolite & Olivine.

The Chrysolite. — The name Chrysolite (Chrysolitus, a gold-yellow stone) is of Greek origin, but was by the ancients applied to the Topaz.

Its color is pistachio-green, which sometimes approaches to olive-green, seldom to asparagus-green, and pale grass green. Very rarely we observe in the same specimen, besides the green, also in a particular direction a pale cherry red, inclining to broccoli-brown color.

It is brought to Europe from the Levant, and it is said to occur in Upper Egypt, and on the shores of the Red Sea; and it is alleged to have been detected in trap rocks in Bohemia, and the Isle de Bourbon.

This gem, which has an agreeable color, and considerable luster and transparency, is used in jewelry for necklaces, hair ornaments, and for ring-stones, when it it set with a gold foil. It is the softest of the precious stones; jewels of it become dull on the surface, if not carefully worn and kept.

Pliny, who describes it under the name Topaz, says that it is found in the Island Topazos in the Red Sea, and also near the town of Alabastrum, near «Thebais» in Upper Egypt.

Birth Month Flowers: Leo Birthstone

August Birthstone Peridot

August Birthstone Peridot. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

It occurs in angular pieces, (that appear to be original,) sometimes in roundish pieces which seem to be pebbles, and often crystallized.

The crystals are middle-sized, small, and all around crystallized.

It is transparent, and refracts double, particularly when viewed through the broader acuminating planes, and the obliquely opposite brooder lateral planes of N° 1.

It scratches felspar, and sometimes even quartz. It is brittle.

Its colors change, but it does not melt, without addition, before the blowpipe; but with borax, it melts into a transparent green glass.

This mineral has hitherto been found only in a loose state: some mineralogists conjecture that it occurs in veins in serpentine, or greenstone; and also in newer trap rocks.

The Olivine. — The name «Olivine», is given to this spices on account of its predominating olive-green color.

Its color is olive-green, which passes on the one side into asparagus-green, on the other into oil-green, and into a color intermediate between ochre and cream-yellow, and into pale yellowish-brown.

It occurs massive, in grains, in roundish pieces, from the SIze of a hemp-seed to that of a man’s head, which are generally imbedded, and less frequently loose.

When crystallized, which is rarely the case, it is in the form of rectangular four-sided prisms, which are always imbedded.

The massive varieties occur in small and angulo-granular concretions.

Internally the luster is shining and glistening, and is indeterminate between vitreous and resinous.

An imperfect double cleavage is sometimes discoverable. The fracture is small-grained uneven, sometimes passing into imperfect small conchoidal. The fragments are indeterminate angular, and rather sharp-edged.

It is translucent, passing into semi-transparent, seldom
transparent. It is hard, but in a lower degree than chrysolite. It is brittle. It is easily frangible. Specific gravity, 3.225.

It is infusible before the blowpipe without addition; with borax, it melts into a dark-green bead. It loses its color in nitrous acid, the acid dissolving the iron, which iii its coloring ingredient.

It occurs imbedded in basalt, greenstone, porphyry, and lava, and generally accompanied with augite.

Europe.–It occurs in the second~ trap rocks of the Lothians, and other districts in Scotland; and in those of the Hebrides. Sparingly in trap rocks in the north of Ireland. It is found in Iceland; and on the Continent, in Czech Republic, Germany, Austria; Hungary, France, Italy, Spain, &c.

Africa.– Tenerife; St Helena; Isle de Bourbon

America.–Greenland; and the Cordilleras of South America.

Olivine is distinguished from Chrysolite by its paler green colors, external shape, lower luster, fracture, distinct concretions, inferior transparency, inferior hardness, and weighL

Olivine is nearly allied to Augite: this alliance is not so much a consequence of agreement in external characters, 88 rather a similarity in geognostic relations.

Both species occur in the same kind of rock, and the one seldom without the other; and the large masses and grains of olivine sometimes contain small angular grains of augite, which take, as it were, the place of single distinct concretions,–a fact which shews their mutual affinity.

It is distinguished from Augite by its paler colors, external shape, kind of luster, fracture, superior transparency, and its inferior hardness and weight.

It is distinguished from Common Green Garnet, by its greater transparency, inferior hardness and weight.

A yellow substance, nearly allied to olivine, occurs in the Siberian meteoric iron.

July Birthstone Ruby

Ruby is the Birthstone for July. — The Ruby is, chemically, the same as the Sapphire except so far as it is affected by its coloring matter. Ruby ranks next to the Diamond in value. A fine specimen of the Oriental Ruby is rarer than even the Diamond itself. Anciently Ruby went by the name of carbuncle, as it does occasionally now.

It is a species of silex or quartz, and therefore participates in the natural hardness of that stone. As Ruby name indicates, it is red in color—a carmine−red—and a very beautiful ornament for the «ornamental sex». They are found in India, in Ceylon, in Czech Republic, and in Hungary.

OF ITS COLOR

The color of the Ruby, when perfect, is a fun carmine red, in which state it is known by the name of Spinel Ruby; when the tinge verges upon rather pale rose red, it is called Balais Ruby; when the red has a decided shade of orange, it usually goes by the name of Vermeil; when of a yellowish red, it is called Rubicelle: in other varieties, the red by mixture with blue, becomes crimson, violet, and finally indigo blue, which latter is sometimes so deep, as to be scarcely distinguished from black; sometimes, though rarely, a greenish blue is observable; these latter varieties scarcely belong to the Jeweler, but are called by the Mineralogist, Ceylaniteand Pleonaste.

Read more about: Cancer Birthstone

OF ITS HISTORY & FAMOUS RUBIES

July Birthstone Ruby

July Birthstone Ruby. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

The largest Ruby known is said to be in the Imperial Russian Crown, in which it is placed under the cross. It was bought for the Empress Anne in Pekin, for 120,000 rubles, by her ambassador to that city.

Tavernier gives drawings of and describes several remarkable Rubies he saw in the East.

First is Ruby that belonged to the King of Persia, nearly as large as an egg and of that shape, of deep color, and of unknown weight. It had been for many years in the treasury of that monarch.

The second figure is that of a Ruby sold as a Ruby to Giaferkan, uncle of the Great Mogul, for 95,000 rupees ($285,000 in those days), and presented by him to the Emperor.

A discharged old Jeweler of the king, haying found some opportunity of examining this Ruby, declared that Giaferkan had been deceived, that it was not a Ruby, and was not worth over 500 rupees. The king’s Jewelers were convened to decide upon the matter, and they declared their belief in its genuineness.

As in the whole Empire of the Great Mogul there was no person more skilled, it was believed, in the knowledge of precious stones than Shah Jehan, then detained a prisoner at Agra by his son, Aureng Zebe, the latter sent the stone to his father, begging his opinion. He confirmed the views of the old Jeweler, and said it was not worth more than 500 rupees. The stone haying been brought back to Aureng Zebe, it was returned to the merchant who sold it, and he was forced to disgorge the money he had received for it. This Ruby was of an egg-shape.

The next is a view of one weighing seventeen and a half carats, in the possession of the King of Visapour, of the shape of half au egg. It is well cut, and of the greatest beauty. It was bought in 1653, for 14,200 new pagodas, (about as many dollars).

We have then described one Ruby «weighing fifty and three-quarters carats, of the second water, uncut, and almond-shaped. It was offered at Banarous for 55,000 rupees».

Tavernier says that Rubies were so scarce in Asia that he found it profitable to take them thither from Europe to sell.

He says he found them so preciously guarded, that a merchant would never shew a Ruby, even if an insignificant one, unless you agreed to give him some trifling present, as a cap or belt, in case you did not buy.

He speaks of one weighing five carats, found in Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and presented by General Wallestein, Duke of Fridland, to the Viceroy of Hungary.

In the Green Vault at Dresden there is a pair of Ruby earrings, which have been valued at 24,000 whalers, though at present they would probably bring a much higher price, owing to these gems being greatly in fashion. The above sum would be about 18, 000 of our dollars (XIX century). The English Crown contains a large heart-shaped Ruby.

OF ITS MYSTERY, LEGENDS & HEALING PROPERTIES

Ludovicus Vartomaunus, a lying old Roman, says that the King of Pegu, in India, had a Ruby which could illuminate a dark room as brilliantly as could the sun!

Andreas Baccius says in his book, De Natura Gemmarum, that if danger approaches the wearer of a Ruby, it will turn black, and, upon the danger being past, resume its color again!

Nicols relates the following of Baccius and a Ruby he possessed enclosed in a gold ring:

«On the fifth of December, 1600, he was traveling with his wife, Catharina Adelmania, to Studgard, and in his travel he observed his Ruby to change its glory into obscuritie, whereupon he told his wife, and prognosticated that evil thereupon would ensue either to himself or her, which accordingly did; for not many days after his wife was taken with a mortal disease and died; after which he saith his Ruby of its own accord did again recover its former luster, glory, beauty, and splendor».

RUBY AS A MINERAL

Ruby’s primitive and most usual form, is the regular octohedron; it also presents the cuneiform octahedron, and a few other varieties; sometimes it occurs in rolled grains. In size Rubies very rarely exceeds eight or ten, carats; the planes of the crystals are smooth and brightly shining, with a vitreous luster, and usually exhibit a lamellar structure; the fracture is fiat conchoidal, and sometimes imperfectly foliated; the lighter colored varieties, when not foul or flawed, are transparent; the dark colored are semitransparent, or even only translucent on the edges.

Its hardness is superior to that of Quartz, but not equal to that of the Oriental Ruby, and the Spinel is considerably harder than the Pleonaste. Its specific gravity varies from 3.6 to 3.7. It is singly refractive, and is infusible without addition before the blowpipe.

June Birthstone Moonstone

June Birthstone Moonstone – Moonstone (Titles adularia, adularia, selenite, fisheye, orthoclase, pearl spar, sanidine) – a kind of potassium feldspar bluish-silver color. Due to fine lamellar structure on its surface are silver-white (lunar) play for, the stone got its name.

Another origin of the name associated with the June Birthstone properties allegedly changed its luster depending on the phase of the moon in the sky.

Title adularia (adularia) is connected with the name of the mountains in Switzerland Adula.

Another name of June Birthstone «selenite», comes from the Greek-Latin «selenites» (moon). Also milky white moonstone, there are also purple, brown, green, orange, black, champagne-colored stones.

Extremely rare moonstones patterned star or «cat’s eye». There are several varieties of June Birthstone moonstone ( aventurine feldspar, labradorite, BELOMOR ), but these only recognize adularia and sanidine – they are extremely rare and are truly wonderful representatives of natural stones.

Along with natural moonstones, in present days also use cheap plastic imitation of June Birthstone.

Read also about: Pearls, Alexandrite & Gemini Birthstone

JUNE BIRTHSTONE HISTORY

«I’ll give you everything you want, though the moon from the sky» – say the lovers all over the world , wanting to prove the strength of their feelings.

Since ancient times, people have dreamed about it – keep, found on Earth frozen moonlight , understand the nature of the lunar mysteries, get a piece of the moon.

Prose of life tells us that in fact the moon – only satellite floating in the vacuum of space, not even a planet at all, and so – big dead ball, shining only by reflected light.

But the Moon has an amazing impact on our lives – and not only in the tides it is expressed , but also in the behavior of plants and animals, changing people’s attitudes , the mysterious events that are somehow inextricably linked to the lunar phases that people started watching since the dawn of time.

And it, certainly, can not be explained rationally, that one of the many gems as clearly responds to the fact that the crescent becomes radiant white medallion pinned to the black velvet sky, and then slims to extinction …

JUNE BIRTHSTONE MOONSTONE HISTORY

June Birthstone Moonstone

June Birthstone Moonstone. Credits to Amelia @ Flickr

These properties of June Birthstone were seen for a long time – in ancient India, where precious stones exerted the utmost attention and biased.

There are many legends about the June Birthstone moonstone. They say, for example, that on the surface of June Birthstone moonstone appears white spot , and it growing to the extent that increases the brightness of the moon to full moon.

Sages noted, that the period of new moon, stone becomes cold and as if poured moonlight, starting to shine much brighter, and with a decrease of the lunar disk luster fades until the next new moon.

How can a piece of rock so strongly reflect the progress of the lunar month – still unknown, but in India June Birthstone moonstone became a sacred stone that brings happiness.

For unusual iridescent white with a bluish or yellowish tint called it «a slap moon» or «lunar foam» – believed that these stones are frozen tears of the moon goddess, and he has like iridescence and has within itself its own source of radiance, it is always different, changeable, faintly shimmering with all the colors of the rainbow.

Maybe because it was identified with the art of prediction – Chaldean magicians June Birthstone put under the tongue to see the future, but today occultists recommend for prophetic dreams put a stone under the pillow.

June Birthstone Moonstone was very much like in the old days in the East, in Muslim countries, India, Burma and Ceylon; great Avicenna mentioned it in their recipes as a miracle cure, and Arabic texts beauty girls compared with the radiance of the moon. But in Europe, it has long been «out of fashion», although in the old days it used actively fortune tellers and magicians.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE MOONSTONE ORIGIN & PROPERTIES

June Birthstone Moonstone – a kind of potassium feldspar.

Mohs hardness: from 6,0 to 6,6

The density: 2.6 g/cm³, silky luster, glass.

Another names: adularia, pearl spar, pearl spar, orthoclase, fisheye.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE MOONSTONE MINES

Basically high quality natural June Birthstone  mined in Sri Lanka, Burma, Mongolia. His other field in Tanzania, Brazil, United States (Virginia, Pennsylvania), India, Australia, Madagascar. In Russia in the White Sea BELOMOR mined.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE MOONSTONE ZODIAC SIGN

Astrologers recommend June Birthstone moonstone as a mascot Pisces or Cancer. He is not contraindicated and other zodiac signs, except Leo, Sagittarius and Aries.

June Birthstone Moonstone should not be worn on the waning moon – this time he recovers his strength and could become the host for this energy vampire.

Especially favorable June Birthstone moonstone for people born on Monday (The Moon patronizes Monday).

JUNE BIRTHSTONE MOONSTONE COLORS

Turning June Birthstone, note mysterious lilt. So adularia effect manifests itself. Some people think that it depends on the phases of the moon.

Sri Lankan June Birthstone has transparency and soft blue hue. Mineral from India flickering waves and gives shade to orange, brown, beige and green tones. Because of its ease and elegance with a moonstone ring is a perfect gift for someone thin, gentle nature.

Mineral is not very hard to cut and requires caution. If June Birthstone moonstone slightly dimmed, it can be sanded or to polish, it will return him to the old paint. The ideal way of handling gem – giving it shape cabochon.

By purchasing a ring with June Birthstone, do not be surprised the price difference. In fact, everything is simple – size, transparence and color affect the value of the mineral. In classical moonstones excellent quality three-dimensional color appears. They are unique, and so are expensive. Gems of Indian origin are more democratic in price.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE MOONSTONE HEALING PROPERTIES

As a healer June Birthstone powerfully affects the body, for which it is worn so that it touched the bare skin. It facilitates seizures, soothes, relieves outbreak of uncontrolled anger and aggression, normalizes sleep and provides clear and vivid dreams, sleepwalking cures.

June Birthstone Moonstone energy is associated with the element of water and effectively removes toxins from the stones, tumors, seals, «flushes» toxins can alleviate the suffering of the patient, even in the last stages of cancer.

June Birthstone is useful in diseases of the kidneys, liver and biliary tract, jaundice, disorders of the endocrine glands and hormonal imbalance. Stone cleanses the blood and lymph, reduces swelling and inflammation, fevers, improves heart function.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE MOONSTONE MYSTICAL PROPERTIES

Energetically June Birthstone moonstone, from antiquity is loving mascot. Brooch with June Birthstone, worn at heart, you will attract true love and awaken a response in your soul deep feeling, this is a magnificent stone «therapy» against loneliness.

June Birthstone Moonstone immediately responds to the cooling of feelings: dims change saturation. Special force Moonstone is filled during the full moon – then it spreads around him wave rest, peace, love and tenderness.

It is recommended on the night of the full moon to keep June Birthstone moonstone on the window sill, that he «engorged» lunar rays and restored energy given to the owner. In the days of the first lunar, moonstone can enhance intuition owner until clairvoyance.

For people with rapid, erratic temperament, useful to wear June Birthstone on the left arm – it makes them more tolerant, sociable, calm, protects against failures and useless energy emissions «into the void».

On the right hand such a talisman will be useful to those who lived on the creative path – writers, artists, musicians, designers, he awakens the imagination and gives inspiration, reveals all facets of talent.

In this, June Birthstone is very susceptible to human attention, perfectly recalled if the owner mentally or aloud, talking to him regularly caring or just sometimes silently contemplates the word, not treated as a meaningless trinket.

Rude, insensitive people stone is useless – he develops internal quality only those who initially tends to sophistication, beauty and creativity.

June Birthstone Moonstone are not wear permanent – it can be worn in the period from new moon to full moon, on the waning moon, he becomes a real energy vampire, weakening its owner. Most powerfully he shows his qualities on Mondays.

Worn stone best to wear on the neck or chest, or in the ring on the ring finger, straighten in silver.

June Birthstone Pearls

June Birthstone – Among the many Birthstones pearls always stood alone. The most mysterious and beloved of gems, June Birthstone just became the first known human adornment since the dawn of our civilization.

This wonderful stone is unique in the whole and is unique, combining amazing beauty with such non-standard properties.

June Birthstone Pearls – (from the Chinese 珍珠) solid rounded education that were found in the shells of some species of bivalve molluscs.

Prized along with precious stones and is used to make jewelry as inserts, as well as their own (pendants, beads, etc.).

Natural pearl is white, at least – black pearl, pink and gradation. Very rare pearl blue.

Read also about: Alexandrite, Moonstone, Gemini Birthstone

JUNE BIRTHSTONE PEARLS HISTORY

It say that the very first jewelery people started doing out of the June Birthstone.

Long before our era, our ancestors found in the shells of shellfish, these amazing creatures – the pearl. And resist the beauty of natural June Birthstone pearls was impossible.

Of course, the origin of such a beautiful material could be explained only by the legends. For example, the Greeks decided that it tears a sea nymph.

The Slavs were more prosaic, and decided that pearl is the result of reflection of lightning in the eyes of shellfish. According to the Chinese, June Birthstone – the water is frozen in the moonlight.

In 2300 BC on Sumerian clay tablet mentions the so-called «fish eye». It is considered the oldest mention of June Birthstone pearls.

Because this gift of seas is beautiful in its original form, the ancient queen often wore it in the decoration of June Birthstone pearls.

If Semiramis came out for the holidays in seven threads from pink pearls, that Cleopatra was proud of owning an entire box of jewels and while insanely expensive natural June Birthstone pearls.

Up until the 15th century, and white and black pearl was the most beautiful jewelry material. Only then learned to process diamonds, which eclipsed the luster of natural pearls.

By the way, in the Middle Age , it was used more as a home jewel – they are more admired at home than worn in public. In the East, while with June Birthstone rivaled only ruby and emerald.

Also, natural June Birthstone pearls were in vogue during the Renaissance.
In Russia pearl appeared in the descriptions about the tenth century. And in XIII century it into use for decorating expensive clothes, women’s hats, and, of course, vestments of priests.

Subsequently, the material is becoming a favorite gem of the church. This makes sense if you remember that pearl, many associated with the rebirth, birth, and in general is a matter of mystery.

In the women’s monasteries were pearls in a special account . Actually, they were decorated with only heels superiors , but natural June Birthstone pearls went on chasubles, stoles and other apparel for the manufacture of beads is the best suited black pearls. Then arose the name «stone bride of Christ».

Only in the early 20th century, the Japanese have cultivated pearls artificially . At the same time, and to this day it is grown in shellfish in natural waters, so cultured pearls are not inferior to the natural properties.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE PEARLS THE ORIGIN AND CHARACTERISTICS

June Birthstone Pearls

June Birthstone Pearls. Credits to Sonictk @ Flickr

Pearls – a mineral of organic origin, formed by the postponement of mineral matter around a foreign body in the mantle cavity of marine and freshwater molluscs.

Mohs Hardness: from 2.5 to 4.5

The density: 2.7 g/cm³.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE PEARLS DEPOSITS

June Birthstone Pearls of the Gulf known as the eastern or «oriental». It is the most valuable kind of pearls.

As for the wild, natural pearls, then mined in India pale pink, in the Sea of Japan – light green, in the coastal waters of Ceylon – silver and yellow in Australia – white, in the Gulf of Mexico and off the coast of the island of Tahiti – the original black pearl.

In the Gulf of California live pearl, creating a pink-red pearl.

Regarding cultured June Birthstone pearls, it being mined primarily in China, India and Japan. Of course, cultured pearls can be any color. If, however, all power is produced mainly white, and much less pink and black pearls.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE PEARLS COLOR & SIZE

The color of June Birthstone depends on the initial nucleus, the type of shell and place of production – it varies from creamy white to almost black with a purplish pink hue.

There are pearls of blue, gray, pink, yellow …

Size directly proportional to the age of a pearl: about 12 years out on the birth of a stone the size of a pea, the appearance of ball with a diameter of 8-10 mm is about 40 years.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE PEARLS METODS TO PRODUCE

Today, there are 2 ways of pearling – find shells, June Birthstone pearls at the bottom of the sea or the river was used in ancient times, in the beginning of the XX century in Japan firm Mikimoto pearls began to grow.

Today, most of the views on the world commodity market cultivated on pearl farms in Japan or Australia. Pearl farming has several stages: first – pearl oyster shell 2-3 years grown in freshwater, «manger», then placed inside a «seed» – mother of pearl bead, and leave the sink in salt water a few kilometers from the coast.

Ready- pearl may be of any , even angular shape – it all depends on the shape of the initial «seed». The cultivation period is between one and a half to three years. By the properties of such June Birthstone pearls in no inferior found fishers, with the shape and quality is often superior to natural samples.

It was cultured June Birthstones using the U.S. House of Tiffany, actively combining pearls and diamonds, and Mikimoto, representing the products of large pearls of non-standard colors.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE PEARLS HEALING PROPERTIES

Jewellery, for example, the June Birthstone – it is recommended to wear the girls to give shine and protect your eyes from the pangs of unrequited love.
It is believed that this gemstone removes the heat, inflammation, acute hepatitis. It can also help with epilepsy, fractures and bone disease, eczema, asthma.

Also, the black pearl treats diseases of the liver, kidney, bladder and urinary tract, promotes discharge and resorption of kidney stones.
Pink Pearl will help get rid of melancholy. It is useful to carry it, and the tendency to allergic reactions.

At different times, this mineral is used physicians , making it a part of various recipes. Until now, Japan June Birthstone pearls triturated and as such are sold in pharmacies. In this case, a good half of cultured pearls, which rejected for sale in its original form, is spent on drugs and is sold as a medicine in Asia.

It is believed that the heart pains to keep the mouth gem – it helps to strengthen the heart relieves arrhythmia. In some mysterious way with June Birthstone pearls ancient purified blood, making it light , sparse … though this is more to an mysticism. However, it is possible that with the pearl powder can stop bleeding.

June Birthstone helps in case of poisoning , brain diseases, sexual disorders, increase appetite. Also it is used in the treatment of eye diseases – night blindness, cataracts, and to strengthen the eye muscles and remove excess moisture from his eyes.

If the patient headache due to overexertion eye muscles, the adherents of stone therapy drip in this case the nose pearl solution.

It is logical that, because looking like mother of pearl and teeth, June Birthstone pearls eliminated the bad breath, strengthen and whiten teeth.

Even in the case of classical passage in a hospital, it will cure various chronic diseases.

In India, to enhance immunity in the morning drink the water, which was placed on the night are a few gems.

In ancient China, followers of the religion of Taoism believed pearls one of the main ingredients for the preparation of the elixir of immortality.

JUNE BIRTHSTONE PEARLS MYSTICAL PROPERTIES

June Birthstone Pearls helps clairvoyant gives the owner an opportunity to think objectively, naturally, with no unexpected behavior. It is also believed that pearls gives power only a very self-confident people, and the rest he can be very frustrating. This occurs because the fruit pearls gives clarity of thought, removing plaque and misconceptions embellishment.

June Birthstone Pearls – a stone true believers. Natural pearls are widely used in church utensils, clothing, icons.
For Lovelace, it will not do, because strengthens the loyalty of love.

According to the Indian sages, is a pearl of the most important elements:

Water, Air and Earth, which explains its cooling effect and soothing effect.
For the strong-minded men, black June Birthstone increases vitality and physical strength.

June Birthstone Alexandrite

Alexandrite is a birthstone for June — it is a modified Uralian chrysoberyl. This gem was discovered in April 17, 1834 by the Finnish mineralogist Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld.  He decided to give a name to this precious stone in honor of Russian Emperor Alexander II.

The color of june birthstone is dark-green, it looks like «dark emerald». Alexandrite loses its green color and becomes purple or crimson in artificial light. In a daylight (strong sunlight), Alexandrite looks like a purple gem, with bluish-green tint.

Birthstone for june is very «young» — its history begins in XIX century, and the story of discovering was as follows:

Finnish mineralogist Nils  Nordenskiöld found this gemstone inside the emerald mines in 1834. Until the 80s, it was thought, that the only place where was deposits of this mineral, were the mines on Ural. These mines were located in 85 miles east of Ekaterinburg. The largest crystals of Alexandrite were found in the mines of Krasnoboltsk. Also, the crystals of this perfect june birthstone were found in the Starsky mine, where they were found growing into the kaolin.

The young age of this gem is not an obstacle for its glory, because this stone quickly won the hearts of collectors and connoisseurs. In the Middle Age, the only people, represented establishment be worn this rare precious stone: ladies of noble estates and the spouses of foreign diplomats could afford to wear Alexandrite jewelry.

Read more about: Pearls & Moonstone

June Birthstone Alexandrite

June Birthstone Alexandrite. Credits to Christina Rutz @ Flickr

When King Alexander died in 1881 at the hands of the revolutionaries, june birthstone became a symbol of Russian monarchists, therefore, Alexandrite came into vogue after the assassination of Alexander II.

Alexandrite could be put together with two diamonds, which symbolize the two historical epochs in the sphere of politics and economics of Alexander – the abolition of serfdom and changes in the judiciary.

Later, the history illustrates another tragic event associated with this «young» Birthstone. The last Russian emperor Nicholas II was executed along with his family, just forty kilometers from the place, where the alexandrite was discovered.

The peak of popularity of Alexandrite belongs to the end of XIX century, when every fashionable lady in Russia and Europe revered her duty to wear Alexandrite jewelry.

RARITY OF JUNE BIRTHSTONE

Clean and clear pieces of Alexandrite are very rare, because of small amount of crystals available for polish.

Impeccably good crystals of natural Alexandrite are much more rare. The crystals, found in mines, usual are less than 1 karat of weight, therefore, the natural Alexandrite is quite rare in sale, besides, some jewelers even never hear about it.

Even uncut Alexandrite is a great rarity. The main reason, that it is a unfavorable sign, to find alexandrite in the Emerald mines. Besides, that Alexandrite itself has no industrial value for jewelers, because its rarity and cost.

The second reason — it is competition between Russian and Indian Alexandrites. There are excellent transparent Alexandrites in India. Besides, some Alexandrite crystals from India has the weight much more than 1 karat and the color with excellent luster. Also, the price of Indian Alexandrite is very low.

THE EXCLUSIVITY OF JUNE BIRTHSTONE

Alexandrite, it seems the only gemstone having trichroism in the highest degree of perfection. Because, if there are some corundum slightly green and light blue, which changes color with candles, the first in a pale blue silk, and purple in the second, then in anyway, these changes are quite weak.

Another well-known variety of Alexandrite, as a gemstone has pure yellow or golden color. These Alexandrites Mined in Brazil, Ekaterinburg district and Earth Orenburg Cossack troops, along the river Sanarka.

Alexandrite is also the rarest gem among all of birthstones.

HEALING PROPERTIES OF JUNE BIRTHSTONE

This gemstone can alert its owner about the changes in his condition. For example, the color of Alexandrite could be changed to yellow, if the owner of gem is under stress.

It is believed, that sometimes, Alexandrite can predict the events. Alexandrite has also another feature — it calms its owner, helping him to be more loyal and to restrain emotions.

The healing power of the June Birthstone depends of duality of its color. Alexandrite may normalize the activity of the circulatory system.

In the XIX century believed that wearing of alexandrite ring or pendant can protect its owner against diseases of the spleen and intestines, and the stone, inserted in the ear, protect against problems with the pancreas.

The healing properties of June Birthstone are close to the properties of amethyst. Alexandrite helps to prevention of diseases, associated with morbid addiction to alcohol, nicotine and drugs.

In general, June Birthstone removes toxins from the body. It is very good to wear Alexandrite jewelry during the period of recovery and rehabilitation after a serious illness, injury or surgery. June Birthstone helps to fastest recovery and brings harmony to its owner.

June Birthstone helps with skin diseases including leprosy, moreover, Alexandrite cures the problems with the spleen and pancreas.

To those who wear June Birthstone jewelry, should closely monitor how often Alexandrite changes its color – fixed «mutations» may indicate a sudden change in blood sugar levels, as a precursor to diabetes.

You need carefully watch for the color of Alexandrite, because you can learn how to prevent emotional breakdowns. June Birthstone, in general, helps to relieve stress and gaining peace of mind.

May Birthstone Emerald

Emerald is the Birthstone for May. — The Emerald (as a mineral) is a composition of silica, alumina, and glucina, colored generally green by chrome oxide. It is of various shades of green, sometimes colorless, sometimes inclining to blue and yellow.

Those species not green however are specifically known as beryl or aquamarine—the coloring matter in them being iron peroxide.

Emeralds are found in the shape of six−sided prisms, with the lateral faces smooth, and varying from transparent to translucent, It is not affected by acids. Emerald is found chiefly in Peru. Less beautiful varieties are met with in India, Ceylon, Greenland, and Siberia.

Emerald is cut in various forms, the Brilliant, the Hose, and the Table styles. It is usually set with a green substance behind it, unless of very fine quality, when they are open−set. One of twenty−four grains, at the auction of the Marquis de Dree (1760—1848), sold for 2,400 francs (XVIII—XIX century). It may be very successfully imitated.

Read also about: Taurus Birthstone

THE HISTORY OF EMERALD

May Birthstone Emerald

May Birthstone Emerald. Credits to Dennis Harper @ Flickr

Anciently there were mines of Emerald wrought in Egypt on the Arabian Gulf, For some centuries all knowledge of them was lost, but they have been rediscovered, in modern clays, by Caillard.

Tavernier has some remarks on Emerald, which, as bearing on the early history of America, are worth translating in full.

He first expresses the opinion, that the Emerald, though known from time immemorial, always came from America. He then adds, «I believe, that, prior to the discovery of that part of the world, commonly called the West Indies, Emeralds were indeed brought into Europe from Asia, but that their actual source was the kingdom of Peru.

For the Americans, before they became known to us, traded in the Philippine Isles, whither they carried gold and silver, especially the latter.

The same traffic is still continued, and the Peruvians visit the Philippines yearly with two or three vessels carrying silver add rough Emeralds.

Here they are met by traders from Bengal, Aracan, Pegu, Goa, and other places, bringing cloths of all sorts, set Diamonds and Rubies, gold jewelry, silk−stuff’s and Persian carpets.

It should, however, be remarked, that they are not permitted to deal directly with the Americans, but only through the intervention of persons residing at the Manillas. And this is the only way in which Emeralds reached Europe before the discovery of the West Indies.»

The Spanish conquerors of Peru heard that, in the Valley of Manta, was a temple dedicated to the Goddess, Emerald. Of course they hastened to pay their devoirs at the shrine of so respectable a divinity. But, on reaching the temple, they found that the Goddess had disappeared. However, finding there a large number of daughters of the «Mother of the Emeralds», (as the Goddess was entitled by the priests), they took possession of these for their own behoof,

The Mexican kings prized Emeralds so highly, that they were accustomed to pierce their nostrils and there hang one of the finest specimens they could procure. They put then also upon the faces of their idols.

If we may credit an old writer, the traffic in them from America must, at one time, have been enormous. For he says, that in tile fleet, which came from the Indies, in the year 1587, there were two great chests of Emeralds. If this be fact, the number in circulation must, we think, have diminished.

Highly as Emeralds have eyer been prized by Europeans, it would seem that the Orientals have valued them more highly still. For Tavernier says, that, in his day, may birthstone Emerald, and indeed nearly all the precious stones, except the Diamond, brought better prices in Asia than in Europe.

Emerald is especially noted for the extravagant traditions of all kinds concerning it.

Thus it is gravely recorded, that the victorious Saracens captured, at the Spanish city, Toledo, a table three hundred and sixty feet lone, constructed of a single Emerald! Also that an obelisk stood there, composed of four Emeralds only, which was sixty feet high! It is stated also that in the Cathedral treasury of Genoa was preserved, in 1780, a hexagonal bowl of Emerald, of which the broadest diameter was fourteen rind a half inches.

In 1319 this bowl was pledged to a certain cardinal for 1200 gold marks, and twelve years elapsed before the city could raise this SUIll fur its redemption. In 1726 a volume was published in Genoa, which professed to demonstrate by authorities, that this identical vessel had once belonged to King Solomon, and was an item of the presents brought to him by the Queen of Sheba.

It must be confessed, that it is rather a sorry downfall of the romance concerning Emerald to find it more than probable, that all these large specimens are neither more nor less than green glass, or at host but rock−crystal, imbedded perhaps with portions of aquamarine. For it is stated that in Peru, which yields the finest in the world, no Emerald larger than an ostrich’s egg has ever been mentioned, and that such a one ever existed is extremely doubtful.

In Saint John’s Apocalypse (chapter IV, 3 V,) the throne of the throne of the Deity is described as surrounded by a rainbow of Emeralds.

OF ITS MAGICAL PROPERTIES & ANCIENT LEGENDS

Tradition says that the famous magician Hermes Trismegistus engraved on an Emerald a panacea for all human maladies, which was enclosed with his body in his tomb. Rather a selfish proceeding it seems to us.

As a fact belonging to modern times, we would mention that the scepter of Poland was a simple piece of beryl, two feet long. It has been broken in the middle, and is now in the possession of Russia.

Mr. Hope, of London, possessed a cut crystal of the beryl class, weighing six ounces, and valued at £500 (XIX centiry); and the Duke of Devonshire another from Peru, two inches long, and weighing eight oz. eighteen dwts, but containing many flaws, and valued at one hundred and fifty guineas.

In the «Memories du Règne de Catherine, Impératrice de Russie» mention is made of an Emerald, belonging to the Crown, of the size of a hen’s egg.

Martinus Rulandus says that the Emerald exceeds in verdure watered grass, or the greenest leaves of the trees.

Avenzoar declares it to be a specific against poisons, and Boetius gives a recipe for a «tincture of Emerald».

Dr. Aloysius Mundella Says that his brother, a Jeweler, sold Emerald for one hundred and thirteen auras to Franciscus Maria, Prince of Urbino, and intended by him to be used medicinally.

Cardanus says that all green jewels may be affected by the fire on account of the abundance of humor contained in them! (De lapidis pretiosis, Book 7).

Bacchius says, speaking of the Emerald, that if wrapped in a linen cloth and put into water, or put into water by itself, the water will seem to be moved. And Wurtzung, a German physician, says that this gem is used in all diseases of the heart.

We shall conclude our researches upon Emerald with some quaint old passages from our «Sometimes member of Jesus Colledge».

«Sophisticators are wont, lucre causa, to adulterate Emerald».

«The Emerald is a precious stone of so excellent a viridity, or spring−color, as that if a man shall look upon an Emerald by a pleasant green meadow, it will be more amiable then the meadow, and overcome the meadow’s glorie, by the glory of that spring of viriditie whichEmerald hath in itself: the largeness of the meadow it will overcome with the amplitude of its glory, where with farre above it greatness it doth feed the eie: and the virescencie of the meadow it will overcome with the brightness of its glory, which in itself seethe to embrace the glorious viridity of many springs. It is known by its apparent coldness in the mouth, and by its gravity being weighed».

«Emerald do much sharpen and acuate the dulness of the sight, and therefore engravers will most willingly be employed about them. It is very transparent, and do very excellently dart forth their rayes like lightning; and therefore they are of great esteem and price».

«The Seythian Emerald is found in gold mines, and can’t be obtained without a great deal of danger: for it is reported, that the Gryphines take charge of this, stand century a bout it, and have their safe custody upon it. These fierce ravenous birds make their nests in the mines of gold where these pretious gems are to be had, therefore the Arimaspi, or Monoculi, who hunger much after the gold, and Emeraukls, are forced to arm themselves for a battle with these birds, before they can obtain their prize».

«Emerald is good to recreate the sight; Andreas Baccius, Agricola, Cardanus, and Anselmus Boetius say, that there is such an enmity betwixt it, and illegitimate venery, or the uncleanness of the flesh, as that if it do but touch the skin of an adulterer, it will break. And that Emerald doth bridle the reins of lasciviousness, and much temper it; insomuch as Albertus Magnus doth not doubt to affirm that the king of Hungaria Bela having carnall knowledge of his wife, with all Emeralds set in gold on his finger, the Emerald brake into three parts».

April Birthstone Diamond

Diamond is the birthstone for April.— The true Diamond is a hard, diaphanous, perfectly transparent stone, which does sparkle forth its glory much like the twinkling a glorious flare.

The true Diamond is the hardest of all other stones, without color, like unto pure water transparent: and if it have any yellowness or blackness, it is a fault in it. This property it has, that the Diamond will snatch color and apply it and unite it to itself; and thus will it cast forth at a great distance its lively shining rays, so that no other jewel can sparkle as it will.

By this excellent emission of its rays or beams, or by this generous sparkling forth of its glory, do the most judicious Jewelers distinguish the true Diamond — the Diamond, from those of bastard kinds.

Read also about: Aries Birthstone

THE NAMES OF DIAMOND

Its name in Hebrew — «יהלום» (jahalom), that is «Adamas»: as Exod.28.18. Diamond is the third stone of the second row of stones that was set in Ephod. «αδαμασ» comes of the verb «δαμάζω», that is, «domo» (eng.: to tame); hence by the exposition of St. Jerome «adamas» does signifie «indomitium» (eng.: untamed). And well may it so do, for neither fire nor iron can destroy its glory, or lessen its vertu.

In Arabic, it is called «Hagar sabedhig», and «Adamaz». In Dutch (Grman) «ein Dhemuth», «Demanth», and «Adamant-stein», and «Adament». In Italian and Spanish, it is called — «Diamante». In French, the Diamonds is — «Diamant». Of the natives where it is found «Iraa». In the Malayan language, Diamond  is called «Itam».

April Birthstone Diamond

April Birthstone Diamond. Credits to Steven Depolo @ Flickr

MYSTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DIAMOND

A true Diamond is so fare from being hurt by being in the fire stone some days, that it will grow better for it, and the more fair. Pliny (Pliny the Elder) says, that — «a true Diamond can’t be hurt by the force of hammer and anvil: other Diamonds experience teaches us ma be brought into broken pieces, and into fine impalpable powder, by the frequent strokes of an hammer».

The ancients have had a very high esteem of Diamond, insomuch as they have thought it to be endued with divine verities; and such, as that if it were but worn included in a ring, or carried about a body near his heart; Diamond could assuage the fury of his enemies, and expel vain fears from his heart, preserve from swooning, drive away the vanity of dreams, and the terrors of night, and frustrate all the malignant contagious power of poison. It is reported of Diamond that it is endued with such a faculty, at that if it be in place with a Load-Stone, it binds up all its power, and hinders all its attractive venture.

If a true Diamond be put upon the head of a woman without her knowledge, it will make her in her sleep, if she be faithful to her husband, to cast herself into his embraces; but if she be an adulteress, to turn away from him. It has been by Ancients esteemed powerful for the driving away of «Lemures», «Incubos», and «Succubos»; and for the hindering of contentions, and to beget in men courage, magnanimity, and stoutheartedness, as appears by Serapius, and by Evaces in Lapidary. Rulandus (Martin Ruland the Elder), Cardanus, Garcias have all written very much concerning these verities of Diamond, to which Authors I refer the courteous visitor of this site for their further satisfaction, till better opportunities shall give me leave to make further discovery of what may be spoken concerning it.

ITS VALUE ACCORDING TO THE ANCIENT SOURCES

It is of esteem for that Diamond has been of faced use; what was the sacred use of april birthstone may be read in the book of Exodus, where we find it to be one of those excellent stones which was to have a place in one of those four rows of ouches of gold set in their several orders upon the breast-place of Judgement, upon the Ephod of High-priest.

It is of esteem for its own irresistible hardness, and for the purity of its perfect glory, in which it does excel all other gems of price, and stones of worth.

«A well polished Diamond without fault, of the weight of a pepper-corn, its worth ten Florens or Crowns», — Boetius, p.63. «If a pointed Diamond be fifty fastened in any convenient thing that man may hold it withal, he may not only cut glass wit it, but also penetrate arms with it», — as said the same Author.

There is proverbial use of it, which is taken from its hardness, and applied either to animate of inanimate things: of this use we may era Statius, Hesiode, and Horace. A main use of it there is in the way of Symbols and Emblems: for by it is figured innocence, constance, and fortitude.

«The forms into which most commonly it is cut, is a «Tablet», which consists of plain upper «Table», and four lateral «Tables», two of which are wont to be longer then the other two, that they may make the just proportion of the upper «Table»; and such a «Tablet» as this». Boetius (Anselmus de Boodt) says, «is of form most perfect: a Diamond thus cut weighing one Caratium (Carat) or four grains, is worth fifty Ducats or Crowns». — Boetius, p. 64.

They are also cut in Pyramidal forms, with Quadrangles, but these are of less value then the «Tablets». The finalist of these best Diamonds are valued at very high prices, the biggest are infinite value.

Cardanus (Geronimo Cardano) in his book «de Subtilitatibus (De subtilitate)», makes mention of a «Diamond that is at Antwerp, which wants one scruple of the weight of an ounce, and is valued at the worth of and fifty thousand Crowns». — Cardanus, de subtl., p. 345.

The shivers and dust of a good, perfect, true Diamond are admirable vertue, and of very great worth, esteem and value: for by their hardness hay do divide all gems: the engravings of all other gems hay are not only profitable but necessary; for whatever precious stones excellent hardness joined with their glory, purity, and beauty, they will want help of these, or they will not easily be either cut, graven or polished.

March Birthstone Bloodstone

The Heliotrope is a half-transparent green gem with sanguine specks, growing to the Jasper and the «Prassius». The name «Heleotropus» is derived from two Greek words; the one «Ήλιος», which signifies «the Sun», the other «στροφή», which signifies «a turning»; as if did it turn according to the motion of the Sun, as the herb «Heliotropium» or the «Marigold» does open and shut the rising and setting of the Sun.

In the ancient sources we can read that Heliotrope was found in India, in Ethiopia, in Africa, in Cyprus, in Germany, in Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and that «of so great masse of bigness, that oftentimes gravestones to cover dead bodies are cut out of it; and yet (which is very strange) Anselmus Boctius says, this stone is known to very few». Boetius, p.130.

March Birthstone Bloodstone

It occurs in obtuse masses, with translucent edges, and is of a resinous luster. For today, it is found in Siberia, in the Faroe Islands, in Scotland, in several countries of Asia and Africa, and in some portions of the United States.

It is chiefly employed for sword and dagger hilts, for snuff-boxes, and the ordinary articles of Jewelry. Ii is much admired. Its price is measured by its number of red spots, a good and large specimen often bringing twenty dollars.

It is reported of it, that if it be put into water which is directly opposed to the beams of the Sun, it will make the water boy, and cause it to be resolved into a cloud, which not long after is dissolved into drops of rain.

And if it be put into fair water, opposed to the beams of the Sun, it does change its beams, and by the repercussion of the air, seems to shadow the clearness of its rays; and so to by the interposition of the body of the Moon, did suffer an ecliptic darkness.

Martinus Rulandus and Baccius do say, that this power and faculty is proper only to the «Ethiopic Heliotrope». Hence this metric elegance of Marobadaus:

«Ex re nomen babens est Heliotropia Gemma(s),
Sua solis radiis in aqua subjecta(s)
Sanguineum reddit mutato lumine solem,
Esclipsimq; novam terris effundere cogit»,

that we can be literally translated as:

«The reality is the name babens (?) Gem Heliotrope,
Its rays of the sun on water subjects
Bloody makes changing light of the sun;
Esclipsimq (?); Shedding new countries to absorb»

There is a report, which arises of the impudence of Magicians, that if this gem be anointed with the juice of Marigold, it will cause him that carries in to walk invisible. So say Pliny.

This gem is said to be endued with the same faculties with the Jasper; and to procure men riches, and good report amongst men; and to be good against venoms and fluxes of blood. Pliny lib.37.cap.10.

Its red spots, according to mediaeval superstition, were owing to the blood of Christ being diffused through it.

March Birthstone Aquamarine

Aquamarine is the birthstone for March. — The Aquamarine (Beryl) is a transparent precious gem, of a pale green color; such as is most truly resembled by a sea-water green: which color is caused by the mixture of a blue and green: in so much as this gem is blue out of a green; that is it does discover its blue through the color of green.

Epiphanius (Epiphanius of Salamis) says of Aquamarine, that it is «glauca gemma», of the color of a quiet sea. All Beryls are transparent says Boethius (Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius), and have alloyed color that is, not a full color: for is they have a full color, they are taken for other common jewels.

If you would see the the perfect color of the Aquamarine, put a little «indico» in fair water, and with it tenth part of green color, and you shall have the perfect resemblance and true color of the Beryl. Pliny (Pliny the Elder) says that the Aquamarine is in fashion «fix-quare», and in color like oil or water sea.

Read also about: March Birthstone Bloodstone, Pisces Birthstone

OF ITS NAMES

March Birthstone Aquamarine

March Birthstone Aquamarine. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

The Hebrews call it «תרשיש» (Tarshish), as Exod.28.20. It seems to have its name, as it does appear by Buxtorff (Johannes Buxtorf), from the maritime city Tarshish: It is a whole transparent stone, of a sea-water green.

The word «תרשיש» is by S. Hierome (Saint Jerome) interpreted «Chrysolithus»; but indeed the Chrysolite which is «vereè Chrysolithus», is much different from it, as being of a golden color, whereas Tarshish is green.

Anselmus Boetius, that the Hebrews call this stone «Fashpech», as it is by S. Hierome interpreted «Chrisolithus», but it seems rather to have some kind of affinity with the «species» of the «Fasper», some oh the kinds of which are of a green color like the «Tarshish».

What the true Chrysolite is, will appear by the former chapter, where a true discovery is made of it as it does differ from the true Topaz, which was vulgarly by those of ancient time called «Topazius», but how improperly will appear in the etymology of the word «Chrysolithus», which renders the «Chrysolite» to be of golden color, whereas the true Topaz is of a diluted green.

This mistake has arisen in the Chrysolite and Topaz, from the custom of them in ancient time, who were wont to call a Chrysolite a Topaz, and a Topaz a Chrysolite, whom in this their mistake many Lapidists (from Lapidary) have too too superciliously followed. Read more about November Birthstone Topaz.

Now because the Beryl (being a green) may sometimes be taken for a Topaz, which is likewise green and pellucid, it may be St. Jerome, according to the custom, has interpreted the «תרשיש», which in its own proper signification is «verus Beryllus», to be «Chrysolithus».

In Latine «Beryllus» and «Beryllus Thalassius sieve marinus». It is called Beryl of the nation where it is generated. The Italians call it «aqua marina» (Aquamarine,—for today known as a March Birthstone); and in English we call it Beryl: when they have any golden rays, they care called «Chrysoberylls» or Chrysoberyl.

THE LEGENDS ABOUT AQUAMARINE

Aquamarine in a spheric form has the same power of begetting fire from the Sun by its beams, that a Crystal glass has. It is said of a  Aquamarine (or Beryl), that is it be wrapt in a linen cloth, and put into water, or put into water without it, the water will seem to be moved. (Baccius de nat.gem.in annotate.in cap.13).

Wurtzung (a German physician) in his general practice faith, that the Aquamarine is used in all distempers of the heart. But take this caution by the way; Beware of the use of gems (unless you are sure they be true) in Physic, by reason hay are so frequently adulterated.

The Aquamarine (or Beryl) is often esteem not only for its beauty, but for it sacred use: for it was one of those stones that was set in the Ephod (in ancient Israel — a sleeveless garment worn by Jewish priests.); as Exod.28.20. and one of those beryls by which the glory of one of the foundations of the wall of the New Jerusalem is discovered unto us; namely the eight foundations, as Revel.21.20.

Ingenuous artificers do engrave the Aquamarine with many angles, that by the repercussion of them, they may be made the more lively, and the more to sparkle.

AQUAMARINE IN JEWELRY

The price of the Aquamarine is augmented or diminish according to the elegance of its color. And this rule is to be observed in the price of all jewels.

Aquamarine, though one of the cheapest of the gems, and the most abundant, is in considerable demand, and is esteemed a fashionable stone.

Aquamarines occur in general of a sufficient size for necklaces, in which form they are usually worn; they are also used for broaches, and not infrequently for seal-stones and intaglios.

Aquamarine is a pleasant one for the lapidary to work, as it stands cutting and polishing without risk. Want of luster, and paleness, and weakness of color, being the defects to which it is chiefly subject, it is requisite that a good stone should be formed with a small table, a high bazel, and with the under part cut into delicate steps.

The only substance with which the common Aquamarine is likely to be confounded is the Blue Topaz, from which it is readily distinguished by its inferior specific gravity, and consequently inferior luster.

AQUAMARINE AS A MINERAL

The usual form of the Aquamarine is a prism of six or twelve sides, deeply striated longitudinally, 80 that it often. approaches towards cylindrical; sometimes a thick prism divides at one extremity into, a multitude of needle shaped crystals, so as to resemble a painter’s brush; sometimes the crystals are jointed, the upper extremity of each piece being concave and the lower convex; sometimes a crystal will present the appearance of having been broken across, and afterwards in mended, the two pieces not being in the same perpendicular, and the place of the fracture being surrounded as it were with a callus.

The size of the crystals varies extremely from mere threads to prisms a foot or more in length, and about four inches in thickness; these latter however are never sufficiently transparent and perfect for the use of the jeweler.

Its cross fracture is conchoidal; its longitudinal is more or less foliated. Its hardness is somewhat superior, to that of rock crystal; and its specific gravity is about 2.7.

Aquamarine occurs imbedded in graphic granite, also in mineral veins with clay, garnet, fluorspar, and topaz. The best are procured in Brazil, in Siberia, and in Ceylon. It is also found, but of very inferior quality, in North America, in France, and in Scotland.