June Birthstone Moonstone

June Birthstone Moonstone – Moonstone (Titles adularia, adularia, selenite, fisheye, orthoclase, pearl spar, sanidine) – a kind of potassium feldspar bluish-silver color. Due to fine lamellar structure on its surface are silver-white (lunar) play for, the stone got its name.

Another origin of the name associated with the June Birthstone properties allegedly changed its luster depending on the phase of the moon in the sky.

Title adularia (adularia) is connected with the name of the mountains in Switzerland Adula.

Another name of June Birthstone «selenite», comes from the Greek-Latin «selenites» (moon). Also milky white moonstone, there are also purple, brown, green, orange, black, champagne-colored stones.

Extremely rare moonstones patterned star or «cat’s eye». There are several varieties of June Birthstone moonstone ( aventurine feldspar, labradorite, BELOMOR ), but these only recognize adularia and sanidine – they are extremely rare and are truly wonderful representatives of natural stones.

Along with natural moonstones, in present days also use cheap plastic imitation of June Birthstone.

Read also about: Pearls, Alexandrite & Gemini Birthstone


«I’ll give you everything you want, though the moon from the sky» – say the lovers all over the world , wanting to prove the strength of their feelings.

Since ancient times, people have dreamed about it – keep, found on Earth frozen moonlight , understand the nature of the lunar mysteries, get a piece of the moon.

Prose of life tells us that in fact the moon – only satellite floating in the vacuum of space, not even a planet at all, and so – big dead ball, shining only by reflected light.

But the Moon has an amazing impact on our lives – and not only in the tides it is expressed , but also in the behavior of plants and animals, changing people’s attitudes , the mysterious events that are somehow inextricably linked to the lunar phases that people started watching since the dawn of time.

And it, certainly, can not be explained rationally, that one of the many gems as clearly responds to the fact that the crescent becomes radiant white medallion pinned to the black velvet sky, and then slims to extinction …


June Birthstone Moonstone

June Birthstone Moonstone. Credits to Amelia @ Flickr

These properties of June Birthstone were seen for a long time – in ancient India, where precious stones exerted the utmost attention and biased.

There are many legends about the June Birthstone moonstone. They say, for example, that on the surface of June Birthstone moonstone appears white spot , and it growing to the extent that increases the brightness of the moon to full moon.

Sages noted, that the period of new moon, stone becomes cold and as if poured moonlight, starting to shine much brighter, and with a decrease of the lunar disk luster fades until the next new moon.

How can a piece of rock so strongly reflect the progress of the lunar month – still unknown, but in India June Birthstone moonstone became a sacred stone that brings happiness.

For unusual iridescent white with a bluish or yellowish tint called it «a slap moon» or «lunar foam» – believed that these stones are frozen tears of the moon goddess, and he has like iridescence and has within itself its own source of radiance, it is always different, changeable, faintly shimmering with all the colors of the rainbow.

Maybe because it was identified with the art of prediction – Chaldean magicians June Birthstone put under the tongue to see the future, but today occultists recommend for prophetic dreams put a stone under the pillow.

June Birthstone Moonstone was very much like in the old days in the East, in Muslim countries, India, Burma and Ceylon; great Avicenna mentioned it in their recipes as a miracle cure, and Arabic texts beauty girls compared with the radiance of the moon. But in Europe, it has long been «out of fashion», although in the old days it used actively fortune tellers and magicians.


June Birthstone Moonstone – a kind of potassium feldspar.

Mohs hardness: from 6,0 to 6,6

The density: 2.6 g/cm³, silky luster, glass.

Another names: adularia, pearl spar, pearl spar, orthoclase, fisheye.


Basically high quality natural June Birthstone  mined in Sri Lanka, Burma, Mongolia. His other field in Tanzania, Brazil, United States (Virginia, Pennsylvania), India, Australia, Madagascar. In Russia in the White Sea BELOMOR mined.


Astrologers recommend June Birthstone moonstone as a mascot Pisces or Cancer. He is not contraindicated and other zodiac signs, except Leo, Sagittarius and Aries.

June Birthstone Moonstone should not be worn on the waning moon – this time he recovers his strength and could become the host for this energy vampire.

Especially favorable June Birthstone moonstone for people born on Monday (The Moon patronizes Monday).


Turning June Birthstone, note mysterious lilt. So adularia effect manifests itself. Some people think that it depends on the phases of the moon.

Sri Lankan June Birthstone has transparency and soft blue hue. Mineral from India flickering waves and gives shade to orange, brown, beige and green tones. Because of its ease and elegance with a moonstone ring is a perfect gift for someone thin, gentle nature.

Mineral is not very hard to cut and requires caution. If June Birthstone moonstone slightly dimmed, it can be sanded or to polish, it will return him to the old paint. The ideal way of handling gem – giving it shape cabochon.

By purchasing a ring with June Birthstone, do not be surprised the price difference. In fact, everything is simple – size, transparence and color affect the value of the mineral. In classical moonstones excellent quality three-dimensional color appears. They are unique, and so are expensive. Gems of Indian origin are more democratic in price.


As a healer June Birthstone powerfully affects the body, for which it is worn so that it touched the bare skin. It facilitates seizures, soothes, relieves outbreak of uncontrolled anger and aggression, normalizes sleep and provides clear and vivid dreams, sleepwalking cures.

June Birthstone Moonstone energy is associated with the element of water and effectively removes toxins from the stones, tumors, seals, «flushes» toxins can alleviate the suffering of the patient, even in the last stages of cancer.

June Birthstone is useful in diseases of the kidneys, liver and biliary tract, jaundice, disorders of the endocrine glands and hormonal imbalance. Stone cleanses the blood and lymph, reduces swelling and inflammation, fevers, improves heart function.


Energetically June Birthstone moonstone, from antiquity is loving mascot. Brooch with June Birthstone, worn at heart, you will attract true love and awaken a response in your soul deep feeling, this is a magnificent stone «therapy» against loneliness.

June Birthstone Moonstone immediately responds to the cooling of feelings: dims change saturation. Special force Moonstone is filled during the full moon – then it spreads around him wave rest, peace, love and tenderness.

It is recommended on the night of the full moon to keep June Birthstone moonstone on the window sill, that he «engorged» lunar rays and restored energy given to the owner. In the days of the first lunar, moonstone can enhance intuition owner until clairvoyance.

For people with rapid, erratic temperament, useful to wear June Birthstone on the left arm – it makes them more tolerant, sociable, calm, protects against failures and useless energy emissions «into the void».

On the right hand such a talisman will be useful to those who lived on the creative path – writers, artists, musicians, designers, he awakens the imagination and gives inspiration, reveals all facets of talent.

In this, June Birthstone is very susceptible to human attention, perfectly recalled if the owner mentally or aloud, talking to him regularly caring or just sometimes silently contemplates the word, not treated as a meaningless trinket.

Rude, insensitive people stone is useless – he develops internal quality only those who initially tends to sophistication, beauty and creativity.

June Birthstone Moonstone are not wear permanent – it can be worn in the period from new moon to full moon, on the waning moon, he becomes a real energy vampire, weakening its owner. Most powerfully he shows his qualities on Mondays.

Worn stone best to wear on the neck or chest, or in the ring on the ring finger, straighten in silver.

June Birthstone Pearls

June Birthstone – Among the many Birthstones pearls always stood alone. The most mysterious and beloved of gems, June Birthstone just became the first known human adornment since the dawn of our civilization.

This wonderful stone is unique in the whole and is unique, combining amazing beauty with such non-standard properties.

June Birthstone Pearls – (from the Chinese 珍珠) solid rounded education that were found in the shells of some species of bivalve molluscs.

Prized along with precious stones and is used to make jewelry as inserts, as well as their own (pendants, beads, etc.).

Natural pearl is white, at least – black pearl, pink and gradation. Very rare pearl blue.

Read also about: Alexandrite, Moonstone, Gemini Birthstone


It say that the very first jewelery people started doing out of the June Birthstone.

Long before our era, our ancestors found in the shells of shellfish, these amazing creatures – the pearl. And resist the beauty of natural June Birthstone pearls was impossible.

Of course, the origin of such a beautiful material could be explained only by the legends. For example, the Greeks decided that it tears a sea nymph.

The Slavs were more prosaic, and decided that pearl is the result of reflection of lightning in the eyes of shellfish. According to the Chinese, June Birthstone – the water is frozen in the moonlight.

In 2300 BC on Sumerian clay tablet mentions the so-called «fish eye». It is considered the oldest mention of June Birthstone pearls.

Because this gift of seas is beautiful in its original form, the ancient queen often wore it in the decoration of June Birthstone pearls.

If Semiramis came out for the holidays in seven threads from pink pearls, that Cleopatra was proud of owning an entire box of jewels and while insanely expensive natural June Birthstone pearls.

Up until the 15th century, and white and black pearl was the most beautiful jewelry material. Only then learned to process diamonds, which eclipsed the luster of natural pearls.

By the way, in the Middle Age , it was used more as a home jewel – they are more admired at home than worn in public. In the East, while with June Birthstone rivaled only ruby and emerald.

Also, natural June Birthstone pearls were in vogue during the Renaissance.
In Russia pearl appeared in the descriptions about the tenth century. And in XIII century it into use for decorating expensive clothes, women’s hats, and, of course, vestments of priests.

Subsequently, the material is becoming a favorite gem of the church. This makes sense if you remember that pearl, many associated with the rebirth, birth, and in general is a matter of mystery.

In the women’s monasteries were pearls in a special account . Actually, they were decorated with only heels superiors , but natural June Birthstone pearls went on chasubles, stoles and other apparel for the manufacture of beads is the best suited black pearls. Then arose the name «stone bride of Christ».

Only in the early 20th century, the Japanese have cultivated pearls artificially . At the same time, and to this day it is grown in shellfish in natural waters, so cultured pearls are not inferior to the natural properties.


June Birthstone Pearls

June Birthstone Pearls. Credits to Sonictk @ Flickr

Pearls – a mineral of organic origin, formed by the postponement of mineral matter around a foreign body in the mantle cavity of marine and freshwater molluscs.

Mohs Hardness: from 2.5 to 4.5

The density: 2.7 g/cm³.


June Birthstone Pearls of the Gulf known as the eastern or «oriental». It is the most valuable kind of pearls.

As for the wild, natural pearls, then mined in India pale pink, in the Sea of Japan – light green, in the coastal waters of Ceylon – silver and yellow in Australia – white, in the Gulf of Mexico and off the coast of the island of Tahiti – the original black pearl.

In the Gulf of California live pearl, creating a pink-red pearl.

Regarding cultured June Birthstone pearls, it being mined primarily in China, India and Japan. Of course, cultured pearls can be any color. If, however, all power is produced mainly white, and much less pink and black pearls.


The color of June Birthstone depends on the initial nucleus, the type of shell and place of production – it varies from creamy white to almost black with a purplish pink hue.

There are pearls of blue, gray, pink, yellow …

Size directly proportional to the age of a pearl: about 12 years out on the birth of a stone the size of a pea, the appearance of ball with a diameter of 8-10 mm is about 40 years.


Today, there are 2 ways of pearling – find shells, June Birthstone pearls at the bottom of the sea or the river was used in ancient times, in the beginning of the XX century in Japan firm Mikimoto pearls began to grow.

Today, most of the views on the world commodity market cultivated on pearl farms in Japan or Australia. Pearl farming has several stages: first – pearl oyster shell 2-3 years grown in freshwater, «manger», then placed inside a «seed» – mother of pearl bead, and leave the sink in salt water a few kilometers from the coast.

Ready- pearl may be of any , even angular shape – it all depends on the shape of the initial «seed». The cultivation period is between one and a half to three years. By the properties of such June Birthstone pearls in no inferior found fishers, with the shape and quality is often superior to natural samples.

It was cultured June Birthstones using the U.S. House of Tiffany, actively combining pearls and diamonds, and Mikimoto, representing the products of large pearls of non-standard colors.


Jewellery, for example, the June Birthstone – it is recommended to wear the girls to give shine and protect your eyes from the pangs of unrequited love.
It is believed that this gemstone removes the heat, inflammation, acute hepatitis. It can also help with epilepsy, fractures and bone disease, eczema, asthma.

Also, the black pearl treats diseases of the liver, kidney, bladder and urinary tract, promotes discharge and resorption of kidney stones.
Pink Pearl will help get rid of melancholy. It is useful to carry it, and the tendency to allergic reactions.

At different times, this mineral is used physicians , making it a part of various recipes. Until now, Japan June Birthstone pearls triturated and as such are sold in pharmacies. In this case, a good half of cultured pearls, which rejected for sale in its original form, is spent on drugs and is sold as a medicine in Asia.

It is believed that the heart pains to keep the mouth gem – it helps to strengthen the heart relieves arrhythmia. In some mysterious way with June Birthstone pearls ancient purified blood, making it light , sparse … though this is more to an mysticism. However, it is possible that with the pearl powder can stop bleeding.

June Birthstone helps in case of poisoning , brain diseases, sexual disorders, increase appetite. Also it is used in the treatment of eye diseases – night blindness, cataracts, and to strengthen the eye muscles and remove excess moisture from his eyes.

If the patient headache due to overexertion eye muscles, the adherents of stone therapy drip in this case the nose pearl solution.

It is logical that, because looking like mother of pearl and teeth, June Birthstone pearls eliminated the bad breath, strengthen and whiten teeth.

Even in the case of classical passage in a hospital, it will cure various chronic diseases.

In India, to enhance immunity in the morning drink the water, which was placed on the night are a few gems.

In ancient China, followers of the religion of Taoism believed pearls one of the main ingredients for the preparation of the elixir of immortality.


June Birthstone Pearls helps clairvoyant gives the owner an opportunity to think objectively, naturally, with no unexpected behavior. It is also believed that pearls gives power only a very self-confident people, and the rest he can be very frustrating. This occurs because the fruit pearls gives clarity of thought, removing plaque and misconceptions embellishment.

June Birthstone Pearls – a stone true believers. Natural pearls are widely used in church utensils, clothing, icons.
For Lovelace, it will not do, because strengthens the loyalty of love.

According to the Indian sages, is a pearl of the most important elements:

Water, Air and Earth, which explains its cooling effect and soothing effect.
For the strong-minded men, black June Birthstone increases vitality and physical strength.

June Birthstone Alexandrite

Alexandrite is a birthstone for June — it is a modified Uralian chrysoberyl. This gem was discovered in April 17, 1834 by the Finnish mineralogist Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld.  He decided to give a name to this precious stone in honor of Russian Emperor Alexander II.

The color of june birthstone is dark-green, it looks like «dark emerald». Alexandrite loses its green color and becomes purple or crimson in artificial light. In a daylight (strong sunlight), Alexandrite looks like a purple gem, with bluish-green tint.

Birthstone for june is very «young» — its history begins in XIX century, and the story of discovering was as follows:

Finnish mineralogist Nils  Nordenskiöld found this gemstone inside the emerald mines in 1834. Until the 80s, it was thought, that the only place where was deposits of this mineral, were the mines on Ural. These mines were located in 85 miles east of Ekaterinburg. The largest crystals of Alexandrite were found in the mines of Krasnoboltsk. Also, the crystals of this perfect june birthstone were found in the Starsky mine, where they were found growing into the kaolin.

The young age of this gem is not an obstacle for its glory, because this stone quickly won the hearts of collectors and connoisseurs. In the Middle Age, the only people, represented establishment be worn this rare precious stone: ladies of noble estates and the spouses of foreign diplomats could afford to wear Alexandrite jewelry.

Read more about: Pearls & Moonstone

June Birthstone Alexandrite

June Birthstone Alexandrite. Credits to Christina Rutz @ Flickr

When King Alexander died in 1881 at the hands of the revolutionaries, june birthstone became a symbol of Russian monarchists, therefore, Alexandrite came into vogue after the assassination of Alexander II.

Alexandrite could be put together with two diamonds, which symbolize the two historical epochs in the sphere of politics and economics of Alexander – the abolition of serfdom and changes in the judiciary.

Later, the history illustrates another tragic event associated with this «young» Birthstone. The last Russian emperor Nicholas II was executed along with his family, just forty kilometers from the place, where the alexandrite was discovered.

The peak of popularity of Alexandrite belongs to the end of XIX century, when every fashionable lady in Russia and Europe revered her duty to wear Alexandrite jewelry.


Clean and clear pieces of Alexandrite are very rare, because of small amount of crystals available for polish.

Impeccably good crystals of natural Alexandrite are much more rare. The crystals, found in mines, usual are less than 1 karat of weight, therefore, the natural Alexandrite is quite rare in sale, besides, some jewelers even never hear about it.

Even uncut Alexandrite is a great rarity. The main reason, that it is a unfavorable sign, to find alexandrite in the Emerald mines. Besides, that Alexandrite itself has no industrial value for jewelers, because its rarity and cost.

The second reason — it is competition between Russian and Indian Alexandrites. There are excellent transparent Alexandrites in India. Besides, some Alexandrite crystals from India has the weight much more than 1 karat and the color with excellent luster. Also, the price of Indian Alexandrite is very low.


Alexandrite, it seems the only gemstone having trichroism in the highest degree of perfection. Because, if there are some corundum slightly green and light blue, which changes color with candles, the first in a pale blue silk, and purple in the second, then in anyway, these changes are quite weak.

Another well-known variety of Alexandrite, as a gemstone has pure yellow or golden color. These Alexandrites Mined in Brazil, Ekaterinburg district and Earth Orenburg Cossack troops, along the river Sanarka.

Alexandrite is also the rarest gem among all of birthstones.


This gemstone can alert its owner about the changes in his condition. For example, the color of Alexandrite could be changed to yellow, if the owner of gem is under stress.

It is believed, that sometimes, Alexandrite can predict the events. Alexandrite has also another feature — it calms its owner, helping him to be more loyal and to restrain emotions.

The healing power of the June Birthstone depends of duality of its color. Alexandrite may normalize the activity of the circulatory system.

In the XIX century believed that wearing of alexandrite ring or pendant can protect its owner against diseases of the spleen and intestines, and the stone, inserted in the ear, protect against problems with the pancreas.

The healing properties of June Birthstone are close to the properties of amethyst. Alexandrite helps to prevention of diseases, associated with morbid addiction to alcohol, nicotine and drugs.

In general, June Birthstone removes toxins from the body. It is very good to wear Alexandrite jewelry during the period of recovery and rehabilitation after a serious illness, injury or surgery. June Birthstone helps to fastest recovery and brings harmony to its owner.

June Birthstone helps with skin diseases including leprosy, moreover, Alexandrite cures the problems with the spleen and pancreas.

To those who wear June Birthstone jewelry, should closely monitor how often Alexandrite changes its color – fixed «mutations» may indicate a sudden change in blood sugar levels, as a precursor to diabetes.

You need carefully watch for the color of Alexandrite, because you can learn how to prevent emotional breakdowns. June Birthstone, in general, helps to relieve stress and gaining peace of mind.

May Birthstone Emerald

Emerald is the Birthstone for May. — The Emerald (as a mineral) is a composition of silica, alumina, and glucina, colored generally green by chrome oxide. It is of various shades of green, sometimes colorless, sometimes inclining to blue and yellow.

Those species not green however are specifically known as beryl or aquamarine—the coloring matter in them being iron peroxide.

Emeralds are found in the shape of six−sided prisms, with the lateral faces smooth, and varying from transparent to translucent, It is not affected by acids. Emerald is found chiefly in Peru. Less beautiful varieties are met with in India, Ceylon, Greenland, and Siberia.

Emerald is cut in various forms, the Brilliant, the Hose, and the Table styles. It is usually set with a green substance behind it, unless of very fine quality, when they are open−set. One of twenty−four grains, at the auction of the Marquis de Dree (1760—1848), sold for 2,400 francs (XVIII—XIX century). It may be very successfully imitated.

Read also about: Taurus Birthstone


May Birthstone Emerald

May Birthstone Emerald. Credits to Dennis Harper @ Flickr

Anciently there were mines of Emerald wrought in Egypt on the Arabian Gulf, For some centuries all knowledge of them was lost, but they have been rediscovered, in modern clays, by Caillard.

Tavernier has some remarks on Emerald, which, as bearing on the early history of America, are worth translating in full.

He first expresses the opinion, that the Emerald, though known from time immemorial, always came from America. He then adds, «I believe, that, prior to the discovery of that part of the world, commonly called the West Indies, Emeralds were indeed brought into Europe from Asia, but that their actual source was the kingdom of Peru.

For the Americans, before they became known to us, traded in the Philippine Isles, whither they carried gold and silver, especially the latter.

The same traffic is still continued, and the Peruvians visit the Philippines yearly with two or three vessels carrying silver add rough Emeralds.

Here they are met by traders from Bengal, Aracan, Pegu, Goa, and other places, bringing cloths of all sorts, set Diamonds and Rubies, gold jewelry, silk−stuff’s and Persian carpets.

It should, however, be remarked, that they are not permitted to deal directly with the Americans, but only through the intervention of persons residing at the Manillas. And this is the only way in which Emeralds reached Europe before the discovery of the West Indies.»

The Spanish conquerors of Peru heard that, in the Valley of Manta, was a temple dedicated to the Goddess, Emerald. Of course they hastened to pay their devoirs at the shrine of so respectable a divinity. But, on reaching the temple, they found that the Goddess had disappeared. However, finding there a large number of daughters of the «Mother of the Emeralds», (as the Goddess was entitled by the priests), they took possession of these for their own behoof,

The Mexican kings prized Emeralds so highly, that they were accustomed to pierce their nostrils and there hang one of the finest specimens they could procure. They put then also upon the faces of their idols.

If we may credit an old writer, the traffic in them from America must, at one time, have been enormous. For he says, that in tile fleet, which came from the Indies, in the year 1587, there were two great chests of Emeralds. If this be fact, the number in circulation must, we think, have diminished.

Highly as Emeralds have eyer been prized by Europeans, it would seem that the Orientals have valued them more highly still. For Tavernier says, that, in his day, may birthstone Emerald, and indeed nearly all the precious stones, except the Diamond, brought better prices in Asia than in Europe.

Emerald is especially noted for the extravagant traditions of all kinds concerning it.

Thus it is gravely recorded, that the victorious Saracens captured, at the Spanish city, Toledo, a table three hundred and sixty feet lone, constructed of a single Emerald! Also that an obelisk stood there, composed of four Emeralds only, which was sixty feet high! It is stated also that in the Cathedral treasury of Genoa was preserved, in 1780, a hexagonal bowl of Emerald, of which the broadest diameter was fourteen rind a half inches.

In 1319 this bowl was pledged to a certain cardinal for 1200 gold marks, and twelve years elapsed before the city could raise this SUIll fur its redemption. In 1726 a volume was published in Genoa, which professed to demonstrate by authorities, that this identical vessel had once belonged to King Solomon, and was an item of the presents brought to him by the Queen of Sheba.

It must be confessed, that it is rather a sorry downfall of the romance concerning Emerald to find it more than probable, that all these large specimens are neither more nor less than green glass, or at host but rock−crystal, imbedded perhaps with portions of aquamarine. For it is stated that in Peru, which yields the finest in the world, no Emerald larger than an ostrich’s egg has ever been mentioned, and that such a one ever existed is extremely doubtful.

In Saint John’s Apocalypse (chapter IV, 3 V,) the throne of the throne of the Deity is described as surrounded by a rainbow of Emeralds.


Tradition says that the famous magician Hermes Trismegistus engraved on an Emerald a panacea for all human maladies, which was enclosed with his body in his tomb. Rather a selfish proceeding it seems to us.

As a fact belonging to modern times, we would mention that the scepter of Poland was a simple piece of beryl, two feet long. It has been broken in the middle, and is now in the possession of Russia.

Mr. Hope, of London, possessed a cut crystal of the beryl class, weighing six ounces, and valued at £500 (XIX centiry); and the Duke of Devonshire another from Peru, two inches long, and weighing eight oz. eighteen dwts, but containing many flaws, and valued at one hundred and fifty guineas.

In the «Memories du Règne de Catherine, Impératrice de Russie» mention is made of an Emerald, belonging to the Crown, of the size of a hen’s egg.

Martinus Rulandus says that the Emerald exceeds in verdure watered grass, or the greenest leaves of the trees.

Avenzoar declares it to be a specific against poisons, and Boetius gives a recipe for a «tincture of Emerald».

Dr. Aloysius Mundella Says that his brother, a Jeweler, sold Emerald for one hundred and thirteen auras to Franciscus Maria, Prince of Urbino, and intended by him to be used medicinally.

Cardanus says that all green jewels may be affected by the fire on account of the abundance of humor contained in them! (De lapidis pretiosis, Book 7).

Bacchius says, speaking of the Emerald, that if wrapped in a linen cloth and put into water, or put into water by itself, the water will seem to be moved. And Wurtzung, a German physician, says that this gem is used in all diseases of the heart.

We shall conclude our researches upon Emerald with some quaint old passages from our «Sometimes member of Jesus Colledge».

«Sophisticators are wont, lucre causa, to adulterate Emerald».

«The Emerald is a precious stone of so excellent a viridity, or spring−color, as that if a man shall look upon an Emerald by a pleasant green meadow, it will be more amiable then the meadow, and overcome the meadow’s glorie, by the glory of that spring of viriditie whichEmerald hath in itself: the largeness of the meadow it will overcome with the amplitude of its glory, where with farre above it greatness it doth feed the eie: and the virescencie of the meadow it will overcome with the brightness of its glory, which in itself seethe to embrace the glorious viridity of many springs. It is known by its apparent coldness in the mouth, and by its gravity being weighed».

«Emerald do much sharpen and acuate the dulness of the sight, and therefore engravers will most willingly be employed about them. It is very transparent, and do very excellently dart forth their rayes like lightning; and therefore they are of great esteem and price».

«The Seythian Emerald is found in gold mines, and can’t be obtained without a great deal of danger: for it is reported, that the Gryphines take charge of this, stand century a bout it, and have their safe custody upon it. These fierce ravenous birds make their nests in the mines of gold where these pretious gems are to be had, therefore the Arimaspi, or Monoculi, who hunger much after the gold, and Emeraukls, are forced to arm themselves for a battle with these birds, before they can obtain their prize».

«Emerald is good to recreate the sight; Andreas Baccius, Agricola, Cardanus, and Anselmus Boetius say, that there is such an enmity betwixt it, and illegitimate venery, or the uncleanness of the flesh, as that if it do but touch the skin of an adulterer, it will break. And that Emerald doth bridle the reins of lasciviousness, and much temper it; insomuch as Albertus Magnus doth not doubt to affirm that the king of Hungaria Bela having carnall knowledge of his wife, with all Emeralds set in gold on his finger, the Emerald brake into three parts».

April Birthstone Diamond

Diamond is the birthstone for April.— The true Diamond is a hard, diaphanous, perfectly transparent stone, which does sparkle forth its glory much like the twinkling a glorious flare.

The true Diamond is the hardest of all other stones, without color, like unto pure water transparent: and if it have any yellowness or blackness, it is a fault in it. This property it has, that the Diamond will snatch color and apply it and unite it to itself; and thus will it cast forth at a great distance its lively shining rays, so that no other jewel can sparkle as it will.

By this excellent emission of its rays or beams, or by this generous sparkling forth of its glory, do the most judicious Jewelers distinguish the true Diamond — the Diamond, from those of bastard kinds.

Read also about: Aries Birthstone


Its name in Hebrew — «יהלום» (jahalom), that is «Adamas»: as Exod.28.18. Diamond is the third stone of the second row of stones that was set in Ephod. «αδαμασ» comes of the verb «δαμάζω», that is, «domo» (eng.: to tame); hence by the exposition of St. Jerome «adamas» does signifie «indomitium» (eng.: untamed). And well may it so do, for neither fire nor iron can destroy its glory, or lessen its vertu.

In Arabic, it is called «Hagar sabedhig», and «Adamaz». In Dutch (Grman) «ein Dhemuth», «Demanth», and «Adamant-stein», and «Adament». In Italian and Spanish, it is called — «Diamante». In French, the Diamonds is — «Diamant». Of the natives where it is found «Iraa». In the Malayan language, Diamond  is called «Itam».

April Birthstone Diamond

April Birthstone Diamond. Credits to Steven Depolo @ Flickr


A true Diamond is so fare from being hurt by being in the fire stone some days, that it will grow better for it, and the more fair. Pliny (Pliny the Elder) says, that — «a true Diamond can’t be hurt by the force of hammer and anvil: other Diamonds experience teaches us ma be brought into broken pieces, and into fine impalpable powder, by the frequent strokes of an hammer».

The ancients have had a very high esteem of Diamond, insomuch as they have thought it to be endued with divine verities; and such, as that if it were but worn included in a ring, or carried about a body near his heart; Diamond could assuage the fury of his enemies, and expel vain fears from his heart, preserve from swooning, drive away the vanity of dreams, and the terrors of night, and frustrate all the malignant contagious power of poison. It is reported of Diamond that it is endued with such a faculty, at that if it be in place with a Load-Stone, it binds up all its power, and hinders all its attractive venture.

If a true Diamond be put upon the head of a woman without her knowledge, it will make her in her sleep, if she be faithful to her husband, to cast herself into his embraces; but if she be an adulteress, to turn away from him. It has been by Ancients esteemed powerful for the driving away of «Lemures», «Incubos», and «Succubos»; and for the hindering of contentions, and to beget in men courage, magnanimity, and stoutheartedness, as appears by Serapius, and by Evaces in Lapidary. Rulandus (Martin Ruland the Elder), Cardanus, Garcias have all written very much concerning these verities of Diamond, to which Authors I refer the courteous visitor of this site for their further satisfaction, till better opportunities shall give me leave to make further discovery of what may be spoken concerning it.


It is of esteem for that Diamond has been of faced use; what was the sacred use of april birthstone may be read in the book of Exodus, where we find it to be one of those excellent stones which was to have a place in one of those four rows of ouches of gold set in their several orders upon the breast-place of Judgement, upon the Ephod of High-priest.

It is of esteem for its own irresistible hardness, and for the purity of its perfect glory, in which it does excel all other gems of price, and stones of worth.

«A well polished Diamond without fault, of the weight of a pepper-corn, its worth ten Florens or Crowns», — Boetius, p.63. «If a pointed Diamond be fifty fastened in any convenient thing that man may hold it withal, he may not only cut glass wit it, but also penetrate arms with it», — as said the same Author.

There is proverbial use of it, which is taken from its hardness, and applied either to animate of inanimate things: of this use we may era Statius, Hesiode, and Horace. A main use of it there is in the way of Symbols and Emblems: for by it is figured innocence, constance, and fortitude.

«The forms into which most commonly it is cut, is a «Tablet», which consists of plain upper «Table», and four lateral «Tables», two of which are wont to be longer then the other two, that they may make the just proportion of the upper «Table»; and such a «Tablet» as this». Boetius (Anselmus de Boodt) says, «is of form most perfect: a Diamond thus cut weighing one Caratium (Carat) or four grains, is worth fifty Ducats or Crowns». — Boetius, p. 64.

They are also cut in Pyramidal forms, with Quadrangles, but these are of less value then the «Tablets». The finalist of these best Diamonds are valued at very high prices, the biggest are infinite value.

Cardanus (Geronimo Cardano) in his book «de Subtilitatibus (De subtilitate)», makes mention of a «Diamond that is at Antwerp, which wants one scruple of the weight of an ounce, and is valued at the worth of and fifty thousand Crowns». — Cardanus, de subtl., p. 345.

The shivers and dust of a good, perfect, true Diamond are admirable vertue, and of very great worth, esteem and value: for by their hardness hay do divide all gems: the engravings of all other gems hay are not only profitable but necessary; for whatever precious stones excellent hardness joined with their glory, purity, and beauty, they will want help of these, or they will not easily be either cut, graven or polished.

March Birthstone Bloodstone

The Heliotrope is a half-transparent green gem with sanguine specks, growing to the Jasper and the «Prassius». The name «Heleotropus» is derived from two Greek words; the one «Ήλιος», which signifies «the Sun», the other «στροφή», which signifies «a turning»; as if did it turn according to the motion of the Sun, as the herb «Heliotropium» or the «Marigold» does open and shut the rising and setting of the Sun.

In the ancient sources we can read that Heliotrope was found in India, in Ethiopia, in Africa, in Cyprus, in Germany, in Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and that «of so great masse of bigness, that oftentimes gravestones to cover dead bodies are cut out of it; and yet (which is very strange) Anselmus Boctius says, this stone is known to very few». Boetius, p.130.

March Birthstone Bloodstone

It occurs in obtuse masses, with translucent edges, and is of a resinous luster. For today, it is found in Siberia, in the Faroe Islands, in Scotland, in several countries of Asia and Africa, and in some portions of the United States.

It is chiefly employed for sword and dagger hilts, for snuff-boxes, and the ordinary articles of Jewelry. Ii is much admired. Its price is measured by its number of red spots, a good and large specimen often bringing twenty dollars.

It is reported of it, that if it be put into water which is directly opposed to the beams of the Sun, it will make the water boy, and cause it to be resolved into a cloud, which not long after is dissolved into drops of rain.

And if it be put into fair water, opposed to the beams of the Sun, it does change its beams, and by the repercussion of the air, seems to shadow the clearness of its rays; and so to by the interposition of the body of the Moon, did suffer an ecliptic darkness.

Martinus Rulandus and Baccius do say, that this power and faculty is proper only to the «Ethiopic Heliotrope». Hence this metric elegance of Marobadaus:

«Ex re nomen babens est Heliotropia Gemma(s),
Sua solis radiis in aqua subjecta(s)
Sanguineum reddit mutato lumine solem,
Esclipsimq; novam terris effundere cogit»,

that we can be literally translated as:

«The reality is the name babens (?) Gem Heliotrope,
Its rays of the sun on water subjects
Bloody makes changing light of the sun;
Esclipsimq (?); Shedding new countries to absorb»

There is a report, which arises of the impudence of Magicians, that if this gem be anointed with the juice of Marigold, it will cause him that carries in to walk invisible. So say Pliny.

This gem is said to be endued with the same faculties with the Jasper; and to procure men riches, and good report amongst men; and to be good against venoms and fluxes of blood. Pliny lib.37.cap.10.

Its red spots, according to mediaeval superstition, were owing to the blood of Christ being diffused through it.

March Birthstone Aquamarine

Aquamarine is the birthstone for March. — The Aquamarine (Beryl) is a transparent precious gem, of a pale green color; such as is most truly resembled by a sea-water green: which color is caused by the mixture of a blue and green: in so much as this gem is blue out of a green; that is it does discover its blue through the color of green.

Epiphanius (Epiphanius of Salamis) says of Aquamarine, that it is «glauca gemma», of the color of a quiet sea. All Beryls are transparent says Boethius (Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius), and have alloyed color that is, not a full color: for is they have a full color, they are taken for other common jewels.

If you would see the the perfect color of the Aquamarine, put a little «indico» in fair water, and with it tenth part of green color, and you shall have the perfect resemblance and true color of the Beryl. Pliny (Pliny the Elder) says that the Aquamarine is in fashion «fix-quare», and in color like oil or water sea.

Read also about: March Birthstone Bloodstone, Pisces Birthstone


March Birthstone Aquamarine

March Birthstone Aquamarine. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

The Hebrews call it «תרשיש» (Tarshish), as Exod.28.20. It seems to have its name, as it does appear by Buxtorff (Johannes Buxtorf), from the maritime city Tarshish: It is a whole transparent stone, of a sea-water green.

The word «תרשיש» is by S. Hierome (Saint Jerome) interpreted «Chrysolithus»; but indeed the Chrysolite which is «vereè Chrysolithus», is much different from it, as being of a golden color, whereas Tarshish is green.

Anselmus Boetius, that the Hebrews call this stone «Fashpech», as it is by S. Hierome interpreted «Chrisolithus», but it seems rather to have some kind of affinity with the «species» of the «Fasper», some oh the kinds of which are of a green color like the «Tarshish».

What the true Chrysolite is, will appear by the former chapter, where a true discovery is made of it as it does differ from the true Topaz, which was vulgarly by those of ancient time called «Topazius», but how improperly will appear in the etymology of the word «Chrysolithus», which renders the «Chrysolite» to be of golden color, whereas the true Topaz is of a diluted green.

This mistake has arisen in the Chrysolite and Topaz, from the custom of them in ancient time, who were wont to call a Chrysolite a Topaz, and a Topaz a Chrysolite, whom in this their mistake many Lapidists (from Lapidary) have too too superciliously followed. Read more about November Birthstone Topaz.

Now because the Beryl (being a green) may sometimes be taken for a Topaz, which is likewise green and pellucid, it may be St. Jerome, according to the custom, has interpreted the «תרשיש», which in its own proper signification is «verus Beryllus», to be «Chrysolithus».

In Latine «Beryllus» and «Beryllus Thalassius sieve marinus». It is called Beryl of the nation where it is generated. The Italians call it «aqua marina» (Aquamarine,—for today known as a March Birthstone); and in English we call it Beryl: when they have any golden rays, they care called «Chrysoberylls» or Chrysoberyl.


Aquamarine in a spheric form has the same power of begetting fire from the Sun by its beams, that a Crystal glass has. It is said of a  Aquamarine (or Beryl), that is it be wrapt in a linen cloth, and put into water, or put into water without it, the water will seem to be moved. (Baccius de nat.gem.in annotate.in cap.13).

Wurtzung (a German physician) in his general practice faith, that the Aquamarine is used in all distempers of the heart. But take this caution by the way; Beware of the use of gems (unless you are sure they be true) in Physic, by reason hay are so frequently adulterated.

The Aquamarine (or Beryl) is often esteem not only for its beauty, but for it sacred use: for it was one of those stones that was set in the Ephod (in ancient Israel — a sleeveless garment worn by Jewish priests.); as Exod.28.20. and one of those beryls by which the glory of one of the foundations of the wall of the New Jerusalem is discovered unto us; namely the eight foundations, as Revel.21.20.

Ingenuous artificers do engrave the Aquamarine with many angles, that by the repercussion of them, they may be made the more lively, and the more to sparkle.


The price of the Aquamarine is augmented or diminish according to the elegance of its color. And this rule is to be observed in the price of all jewels.

Aquamarine, though one of the cheapest of the gems, and the most abundant, is in considerable demand, and is esteemed a fashionable stone.

Aquamarines occur in general of a sufficient size for necklaces, in which form they are usually worn; they are also used for broaches, and not infrequently for seal-stones and intaglios.

Aquamarine is a pleasant one for the lapidary to work, as it stands cutting and polishing without risk. Want of luster, and paleness, and weakness of color, being the defects to which it is chiefly subject, it is requisite that a good stone should be formed with a small table, a high bazel, and with the under part cut into delicate steps.

The only substance with which the common Aquamarine is likely to be confounded is the Blue Topaz, from which it is readily distinguished by its inferior specific gravity, and consequently inferior luster.


The usual form of the Aquamarine is a prism of six or twelve sides, deeply striated longitudinally, 80 that it often. approaches towards cylindrical; sometimes a thick prism divides at one extremity into, a multitude of needle shaped crystals, so as to resemble a painter’s brush; sometimes the crystals are jointed, the upper extremity of each piece being concave and the lower convex; sometimes a crystal will present the appearance of having been broken across, and afterwards in mended, the two pieces not being in the same perpendicular, and the place of the fracture being surrounded as it were with a callus.

The size of the crystals varies extremely from mere threads to prisms a foot or more in length, and about four inches in thickness; these latter however are never sufficiently transparent and perfect for the use of the jeweler.

Its cross fracture is conchoidal; its longitudinal is more or less foliated. Its hardness is somewhat superior, to that of rock crystal; and its specific gravity is about 2.7.

Aquamarine occurs imbedded in graphic granite, also in mineral veins with clay, garnet, fluorspar, and topaz. The best are procured in Brazil, in Siberia, and in Ceylon. It is also found, but of very inferior quality, in North America, in France, and in Scotland.

February Birthstone Amethyst


Amethyst is the birthstone for February — it is the most valuable violet-blue variety of quartz. It scratches white glass, strikes fire with steel, but yields to the file. Under the compound blowpipe it parts with its color. The blue color of Amethyst is believed to be caused by peroxide of iron.


Amethyst varies from transparent to translucent; is of a vitreous luster; and on the same specimen is often a dark-violet and nearly colorless.

The German chemist, Heintz, found a very dark-tinted Brazilian Amethyst become colorless, when subjected to 250° of heat, and, as it contained, at most, only 0.01 per cent, of manganese, he decided that the latter could not be the coloring principle.

From various other experiments he concluded, that organic matter could not produce the color, but that, most probably, it was owing to the peroxide of Han.

The finest violet Amethysts come from Siberia, Persia, India aun Ceylon. The Scottish Highlands were formerly distinguished for producing the cairngorm, a highly prized brown or yellow-species.

Amethyst is sometimes cut in the form of a Brilliant, and, when set, is supplied with It blue or red foil, in case it is pale, but, when deep-colored, it requires no artificial assistance. Though used in almost all descriptions of Jewelry, it shows best in necklaces.

The Amethyst is no longer prized so highly as once. And yet, when large-sized and intense and uniform in color, it is greatly valued still and well-cut stones, of one carat, are worth from three to five dollars, and so on in proportion to their bulk and tint.


February Birthstone Amethyst


February Birthstone Amethyst. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

Among the ancientsAmethyst was ever a favorite one for purposes of engraving. Several fine specimens ofAmethyst have come down to our day, such as a bust of Trajan carried by Napoleon from Prussia to Paris during the wars of the Empire; the Apollo Belvedere; the Laocoon Group; the Farnese Hercules, etc.

Of its name: As with other precious stones, so with this, antique tradition has connected not a few superstitions. Thus its very name,—from the Greek privative, «a», and «methuo», to intoxicate,—was given to it, under the impression that wine, taken from a cup of this material, could not intoxicate.

The Amethyst was the ninth stone in order on the Urim and Thummim, worn on the breast by the Jewish High Priest.

Aristotle says that the Amethyst, if worn on the stomach hinders the ascension of vapors; the reason of it he gives to to be that it draws the vapors to itself, and thus dissipates them.

Audreas Baccius says (De Natura Gemmarum, Chap. XI) thatAmethyst sharpens the wit, destroys sleep, and resists the effects of poison.


Here we will quote Nicols concerning Amethyst:

«Pliny, sporting in his natural History aboutAmethyst, saith that Amethyst doth draw nigh to the color of wine, hut it durst not toast it, that is, it taketh but very little of it: for before it doth throughly relish it, its glory doth end in a very delightful pleasing sparkling violet color: the most excellent of them have in them a glorious fiery brightness, which doth most excellently and pleasingly dart its self forth (as 1 have observed in one which I was once master of) through the transparent cloud of a sky color; from the mixture of its redness, brightness, or fiery splendor with this sky color, ariseth all the glorious delight of its pleasing tincture».

Amethyst is the birthstone for Aquarius


Amethyst is valued by the jeweler in proportion to the depth, the richness, and uniformity of its color, and its perfect transparency: when complete in all these requisites it forms a stone of exquisite beauty; its color being perhaps more generally, attractive than that of any other gem, especially as it may be attained of as large a size as can be conveniently worn.

The most showy form in which Amethysts can: be made up is in necklaces, and as it is riot easy to find a number of perfect. stones with precisely the same tint of color, such suites are very valuable, and in great estimation among personages of the highest rank: the finest known is in the possession of her Majesty.

Amethyst is often employed as a ring stone; and when of a deep vivid tinge will sustain with advantage the presence of the Diamond; hence it is not unfrequently set round with brilliants.

Pale colored stones require the skillful assistance of the jeweler in suiting them with the proper foil; but good ones want no such help, and the less gold that is employed in making them up the better.

TheAmethyst is almost the only colored stone that can be worn with mourning; a casual advantage which however adds considerably to its value.

Imitations of Amethyst: The Amethyst may be imitated very closely with paste-so closely, that the imitation is distinguished with great difficulty from the real. The artificial gem, however, is somewhat heavier than the genuine, on account of the metallic oxides, which enter into its composition.


Amethyst generally crystalized as pyramids on the exterior of rocks. The uniting planes of the prismatic portions are frequently marked by undulating lines, and all specimens, thus arranged, are now termed Amethysts.

The color of Amethyst is violet-blue of various degrees of intensity, not unfrequently passing in the same specimen from the richest tinge to almost colorless.

Amethyst occurs massive, in rolled pieces, or in hexahedral prismatic crystals, terminated by hexahedral pyramids like quartz or rock crystal, of which, indeed it is merely a variety.

Its crystals are rarely so distinct, as those of quartz, being for the most part laterally aggregated by the whole length of the prisms, the terminal pyramids alone being separate from each other; hens a fracture of the mass in the direction of the prisms presents a coarsely fibrous structure. Its luster is various and more as less thing, according to the degree of transparence, which varies considerably.

Amethyst gives fire with steel, but yields to the file. Its specific gravity is about 2.7. Before the blowpipe it becomes colorless, but does not enter into fusion.

It occurs in veins, or forming the interior part of agate balls in trap rocks.


The best Amethysts come from India and Ceylon, and although commonly called Oriental Amethysts, must be carefully distinguished from a much more valuable gem, the true Oriental Amethyst, or violet colored Sapphire.

Next in esteem are the Brazilian Amethysts; they are procured in the mining districts of that rich country at considerable expense.

The Amethyst of the jeweler are almost entirely obtained from the above mentioned places. Siberia, and various countries in Europe, especial Germany and Spain, furnish inferior, though beautiful Amethysts, proper for snuff boxes, and other inlaid articles.

As violet colored Quartz goes by the name of Amethyst, so when clear and colorless it is commonly known by the name of.

January Birthstone Garnet

Garnet is the birthstone for January.— Quoting Boetius,—«The Garnets are kinds of Carbuncles: It is a pellucid, red, precious gem, like unto the flowers of Pomegranates, of a rose  color, somewhat darker and more obscure than Carbuncle». Boetius says that it looks like a same of fire, or unto pure vermilion.

What we know about Garnet’s Name? — It is called in Hebrew «אדכ», «Adems», that is, «Rubinus», as Ezek.28.13. the Hebrew word «פּוּך», «Puk», is also taken sometimes for the Rubine (Ruby): but that which for the most part Interpreters do interpret it to be, is «Stibium», or «gem Antimonii» (Modern: «Antimony»), which indeed in color is has some resemblance with the Ruby. In Latin it is called «Granatus», and «ein Grana». In English «a Garnet». In Italian «Rubino de Roche», and «Granato».


January Birthstone Garnet. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

St. Jeirome’s opinion concerning this is, that Garnet does illuminate the heart to contemplate true and divine things. Its declining from glory to obscurity, does prognosticate from misfortune; as appears by this which Andreas Baccius speaks of a Garnet of his enclosed in a gold ring.


There are three main kinds of Garnet; the best which is tinctured with the excellent redness of Pomegranate flower. The second has a redness inclining to the color of «Facinth». The third kind is red, tending to a violet color, which by Italians is esteemed the most perfect of all others, and hence they call it «Rubino de Roche».

Pliny relates of the Ethiopians that they have a way of quickening obscure and dull Rubies, so as that they will make them to discover their splendor and nitour for fourteen months together, even like a flaming coals; and that is by macerating of them for fourteen days in vinegar: But buy this means, though their glory be increased for a time, they are made softer, and more subject to a brittle and fragile condition.

The Syrian Garnet is the most esteemed. Its color is a violet purple, which in some rare specimens, enables it to enter into competition with the finest Oriental Amethyst; it is also distinguished from all the other varieties of Garnet, in preserving its color, unmixed with the black tinge that generally obscures this gem, even when of considerable thickness, and unassisted by foil.

It is a disadvantage to Garnet that it loses much of its beauty by candle light, as it then acquires an orange tinge, and may thus be discriminated from the real Oriental Amethyst.

The Bohemian (Bohemia – Czech Republic now) Garnet is generally of a dull poppy red, and when held between the eye and the light, a hyacinth orange tinge is very discernible.

In proportion as this latter color prevails, the value of Garnet is discernible. When, on the contrary, the color of the Garnet is a full crimson red, it is called fire Garnet or Pyrope; its value is considerable, and when perfect and of a large size, is excessively rare, and proportionally esteemed.

The best way of cutting the Pyrope is en cabochon, with a row or two of small facets, round the girdle of the stone. When cut in steps, the color appears more or less black, but when en cabochon, the point on which the light falls, displays at brilliant fire red.


Garnet match almost to all Zodiac Signs, but its real power very depends of its color.

For example:

Orange, Purple and Red Garnet match to – Aries, Aquarius, Leos, Sagittarius, Capricorn;
Brown, Purple and Black Garnet match to – Scorpio, Capricorn;
Green Garnet match to – Libra, Capricorn, Sagittarius.

But Zodiac sources and books illustrates to us that Garnet exactly match to Capricorn. Read more about: Capricorn Birthstone.


Although Garnet, considered as a mineralogical species varies exceedingly in color, in transparency, in fracture, and in other external characters, yet those, that are fit for the purpose of the jeweler, are distinguished by the following properties.

The color of Garnet is blood or cherry red, often on one hand mixed more or less with blue, so as to present various tints of crimson, of purple, and of reddish violet; and, on the other hand, with yellow, forming orange, red, and hyacinth brown.

It occurs crystallized, in rhomboidal dodecahedrons, imbedded in mica slate,and in other primitive rocks; or uncrystallized, in roundish grains, imbedded in serpentine, and in certain trap-rocks.

Its size varies from the smallest piece that can be worked, to the bulk of a nut; when exceeding this, it is scarcely ever free from flaws, or possessed of the requisite degree of transparency. Its fracture is conchoidal; its internal luster is vitreous, and brightly shining; its hardness exceeds that of quartz; its specific gravity varies from 3.7 to 4.2. Before the blowpipe it is fusible without much difficulty into a black enamel.


Garnet is easily worked, and when faced cut, is almost always, on account of the depth of its color, formed into this tables, which are not infrequently concave, or hollowed out on their under side.

Cut Garnets of this latter description, when skillfully set with bright silver foil, have often been sold as Rubies. This gem, though common, and perhaps rather unfashionable at present, has much intrinsic beauty. It is made up into rings, ear-drops and necklaces.

A set of fine Garnets, was considered, a hundred years ago, as a very magnificent ornament for ladies of the highest rank.