December Birthstone Zircon

December Birthstone Zircon – The name of the stone comes from the Persian word «zargun» – gold color. Colors of stone are different: yellow, brown, red, orange, blue, colorless and even black. December Birthstone Zircon is so diverse that it is often confused with other precious stones. Transparent zircons for sophistication shine compete with diamonds.

Contrary to popular belief, this mineral is the natural origin, synthetic analogues do not exist. Diamond simulant – phianites – its structure is not similar to the zircons, so you can not draw parallels.

Some people believe that the December Birthstone zircon is so unsophisticated that you can compare it with a simple colored glass. However, this stone is found in ancient times, when the technology did not have time to step widely.

Read also about: Tanzanite, Turquoise & Sagittarius Birthstone

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE ZIRCON HISTORY

December Birthstone Zircon – stone, which at first glance everybody knows, because it is found in jewelry at a rapid pace. Thanks to a wide range of colors (zircons are colorless, and green, and red, and golden yellow, and blue, and even black) and the ability to change color from brown to blue, yellow or transparent when heated, zircon very often serves as a companion other precious stones, and is used as an imitation of the more expensive gems such as rubies, emeralds and diamonds.

There was even a misconception that December Birthstone zircon is not a gem, and cultured crystals, almost a piece of colored glass, while actually zircons known to mankind since ancient times, and the probability of finding artificial zircon is extremely low – this mineral is widely distributed.

In those days, the stones were brought from Ceylon – there is still extracted zircons of the highest quality, especially prized blue minerals, which are extremely rare.

Until IV century AD, this stone was little known, but then Bishop Epiphanius, decided that such a beautiful gem is worthy of attention, and called his twelve stones of the breastplate of the high priest in the Bible, replacing them ligurion (carnelian or amber).

The most famous variety of December Birthstone zircon – hyacinth, what word designated all red-brown or yellow- red and purple- orange December Birthstone zircon, blue December Birthstone zircon called starlitami, colorless – Mathur, diamonds, lemon yellow and smoky – jargons.

December Birthstone Zircon, generally, unique gem, because different color stones have a wide scatter of values of density and refractive, its external and internal quality, richness of coloring he deserves to occupy one of the highest places in the hierarchy of gems.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE ZIRCON ORIGIN & PROPERTIES

December Birthstone Zircon

December Birthstone Zircon – zirconium silicate.

Mohs hardness: from 7.0 to 8.0;

The density: from 3,9 to 4,7 g/cm³, glitter diamond.

Other names: Hyacinth, Yakinta, steel, hyacinth, jargon, Ceylon jargon.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE ZIRCON MINES

December Birthstone Zircon is mined in Australia, Brazil, Russia, Norway, Sri Lanka, Madagascar.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE ZIRCON ZODIAC SIGN

EnergeticallyDecember Birthstone  zircon associated with parietal chakra and solar plexus chakra Manipur.

To Aquarians it is necessary to wear are golden, colorless or blue December Birthstone as a pendant , pendants, necklaces and beads – it helps them to develop intuition, analytical thinking and prudence in business.

Aries, whose red-brown, gold and orange December Birthstone makes more subtle and sensitive, ring with zircon should be worn on the middle finger of his left hand.

All other signs of the zodiac, besides Pisces, it is necessary to wear pendants or rings with zircons, which is put on the little finger or ring finger.

To Capricorn is more suited blue and brown gemstones.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE ZIRCON COLORS

Multi colors of December Birthstone are red, orange, yellow, brown. If transparent mineral heat-treated, it becomes bright turquoise «starlit». Considering December Birthstone, you can be sure that the play of light in it is very similar to a diamond. Stones browns anciently called «jargon».

December Birthstone Zircon – stone, easily rivaling many gems. Pale excellent mimic diamonds. A color stones of green grass and blue-green so bright that other minerals difficult to compete with them in the unusual.

Vivid red zircons look luxurious. Catchy yellow- golden hue not found in other gems.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE ZIRCON HEALING PROPERTIES

In ancient times believed that December Birthstone in the literal sense of the word is a panacea.

It is able to clean the whole body of toxins, stimulates the liver, has a positive effect on the pineal and pituitary glands, rejuvenates the body and prevents premature aging cures thyroid problems.

Yellow December Birthstones help with constipation, decreased gastric secretion, protect against nightmares, improve appetite and quench your thirst.

Hyacinths treat insomnia, nervous disorders and stress, useful in diseases of the spleen, stop nosebleeds, women hinder the growth of hair on the hidden parts of the body and unwanted conception.

The same effect has red zirconia when putting it into the abdomen of 2-3 hours a day for 10 days.

Blue December Birthstone is used in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders, problems with vision.

Black December Birthstones help with colds, pneumonia, tonsillitis, bronchitis and other lung diseases caused by hypothermia.

Pale and yellow December Birthstones easier for coronary heart disease.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE ZIRCON MYSTICAL PROPERTIES

The Properties of December Birthstone are shrouded by mystical haze. In Europe, has long believed that wearing zircon, for example, will be saved from a lightning strike, or that if worn with a large zircon, you’ll be all set for the night time.

In the Middle Ages, December Birthstone zircon was one of the essential components of medicinal potions, which still called «Hyacinth compositions» – that medicine is a mixture of different precious stones were treated in 1534, Pope Clement VII.

In India, December Birthstone called «the younger brother of the diamond», it was revered practitioners of yoga. It was believed that it is the natural hub of bioenergy and awakens bears his supernatural powers.

In Russia December Birthstone found another, no less important subsistence – it was the most basic merchant mascot promoting the accumulation of wealth.

Today, December Birthstone zircon – a favorite material for the jeweler, he made all sorts of jewelry for women and men, is a great inexpensive gift that is for external quality, durability and density is not inferior to the most famous gems, as to distinguished December Birthstone zircon from gemstone first category, is only capable of eye professional.

December Birthstone Zircon, generally, has a pronounced male Yang energy – more often it shows the stronger sex , makes women confident and independent, it is perfectly suited for business-woman who used to rely only on ourselves – it will give her credibility in the eyes male counterparts.

Jewelry with December Birthstones – extraordinary strength cash charms, especially if they speak for good luck. This is the perfect companion for businessmen – ring with zircon yellow, red, green, brown or orange it is necessary to carry in the transaction, not to take the wrong decision and carry out the operation with maximum benefit for themselves.

Sometimes, December Birthstone zircon even called «stone of mafia» – it is useful for any secret organizations, it helps the owner to withhold information from others, is its owner, regardless of his moral qualities.

At the same time, helping to reveal everything about a particular situation, December Birthstone zircon is the mascot for judges, prosecutors, and forensic detectives, all of whose work involves exposing frauds.

Colorless December Birthstone zircon is used for internal disclosure abilities, develops intuition until clairvoyance and clairaudience, clarifies thoughts and gives a penchant for science – is assistant scientists and researchers, the Theosophical philosophers.

In the journey or at the approach of danger to protect red or orange December Birthstone zircon.

Blue Stone also helps in matters of the heart – gives confidence, increases the attractiveness of treats for unrequited love, and if you need to enhance sexual performance, then you need wear orange December Birthstone zircon.

December Birthstone Tanzanite

ecember Birthstone – December Birthstone Tanzanite an «African sapphire» – a relatively new stone in the jewelry market. But despite this, it was already well known and very popular all over the world.

December Birthstone Tanzanite jewelry a very highly sought after and are an indicator of wealth and good taste.

December Birthstone Tanzanite, differing amazing beauty at the same time extremely fragile – it has perfect cleavage and requires the greatest solicitude when cut and no tie. One incorrectly calculated effort – and crumble gem pile of debris.

Read also about: Zircon, Turquoise & Sagittarius Birthstone

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE HISTORY

Africa – the most ancient and mysterious continent that has not yet discovered all of their secrets.

Nowhere in the jungle are not adjacent to the snow capped mountains, the dry savannah – with nesting penguins, wild rivers – the dead deserts …

Semi-precious wealth of Africa seems endless – Kimberley diamonds, emeralds and sapphires are welcome in the most famous jewelry shops around the world.

And it has from here come into the world a new and surprisingly beautiful gem – «African Diamond» December Birthstone Tanzanite.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE HISTORY

December Birthstone Tanzanite

December Birthstone Tanzanite. Credits to First Last @ Flickr

The discovery of December Birthstone was as random and spontaneous, like a tropical downpour – in 1967, the shepherds found the Masai tribe in Africa at the foot of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania burnt clearing – the fire, along with grass and trees ate the top layer of soil, exposing transparent stones violet-purple color.

One of the warriors of the tribe brought a December Birthstone weighing 10 carats (2 kg) in the office of Manuel De Douša responsible for supplying rubies.

The first discovery of December Birthstone in general took over a piece of glass, then considered a sapphire … However, after careful examination of experts agreed on what they see in front of a brand new gem variety of Zoisite – another African gem, little used in jewelry.

Famous American jeweler Tiffany & Co quickly became interested in the «Blue Zoisite» – that is where the December Birthstone gets its name, derived from a single field in the world, situated on a plateau Merelani in northern Tanzania.

The first collection of Tiffany appeared in the 70’s of the last century – the emergence of a new December Birthstone which coincided with the arisen fashion for ethnic African.

For a long time, December Birthstone Tanzanite has remained relatively inexpensive substitute for blue sapphires, however, gradually rising price on it – December Birthstone was promoted by a competent trade policy aimed at underlining the rarity of the gem , the formation deficit jewelry with «African sapphire».

Thus, the demand began to exceed supply, and at the moment the price of December Birthstone Tanzanite caught up with real sapphires, with growth rates are huge – up to 25 % per year, while the stone is in the top five best-selling gems in the world.

The largest December Birthstone was discovered in 2005 – his weight was 16 839 carats , or more than 3 kg. Stone was named Mawenzi as the second highest peak of Kilimanjaro. Its cost still not appreciated.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE – THE ORIGIN AND CHARACTERISTICS

December Birthstone Tanzanite – Another name for the mineral – blue Zoisite. Blue and purple colors are due to impurity ions of chromium and vanadium. Crystals – transparent. Gloss – glass.

Mohs Hardness: from 6.5 to 7.0

The Density: from 3.1 to 3.5 g/cm3, perfect cleavage.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE DEPOSITS OF GEM

December Birthstone Tanzanite birthplace is considered to be the of East Africa. In 1967, near Mount Kilimanjaro Ali Dzhuyavati of the local tribe was first discovered December Birthstone.

Since then, December Birthstone has been recognized as the embodiment of a mysterious and attractive in Africa, has a rare beauty and extreme exclusivity.

In fact, the rarity of December Birthstone Tanzanite – not a marketing ploy, because the small Tanzanian counterparts deposit have been identified, and existing reserves are gradually being depleted.

December Birthstone makes collectors and connoisseurs of jewelry around the world seek to acquire the stone, which will soon become a rarity.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE ZODIAC SIGN

December Birthstone recommended most people watermarks and Aries. Latest will get from composure and chastity the Tanzanite.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE COLOR

December Birthstone Color can’t be described in one word, because this gem has an «alexandrite» effect – changes color depending on the angle of view, being in fact the tricolor.

The bright blue cloudless sky, lilac purple southern nights , brown- yellow savannah, bright green palm leaf greens, golden sun – Africa itself is reflected in the faces of this amazing mineral.

Blue and purple are the main hues only those stones that are found on the surface of the earth – this kind of «tan» December Birthstone Tanzanite acquires, roasting in the scorching rays of the equatorial sun.

However, the December Birthstones mined in the traditional way, initially have a brown or green shades , so most Tanzanite is subjected to heat treatment.

December Birthstone Tanzanite – the soul of Africa, only when heated to 600 º C mineral that gets the hottest blue- purple with purple glow of color.

The most expensive royal December Birthstone, which in daylight 80 % of the primary color is a deep blue color, the remaining 20 % is purple.

Under artificial light an electric lamp December Birthstone Tanzanite looks different – streaked red-purple color.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE HEALING PROPERTIES

Medicinal properties of December Birthstone are not fully known, but found a lot of useful to human qualities. Stone is indispensable for those whose work is related to the load on the eye – it strengthens the vision and relieves nervous tension, especially useful while peering intently into a mineral – a stone like a pull fatigue.

It is believed that December Birthstone helps get rid of colds , reduces fever and fever. In some countries it is used to treat skin diseases – the product of December Birthstone improves the complexion, relieve acne and teen acne. Assume that Tanzania suitable for treating diseases of the spine. Tanzanite energy associated with the frontal chakra.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE MYSTICAL PROPERTIES

The tricolor glitter of December Birthstone Tanzanite symbolically reflected in the spheres of influence of the stone. December Birthstone Tanzanite – a symbol of love and luxury. In America and Europe, it is considered a universal talisman, attracting both two of the most popular and desirable things – material wealth and happy family life.

Success in business matters brought brooches and pendants with Tanzanite ring helps business successfully sell goods.

Women with a December Birthstone Tanzanite ring will help to attract the attention of the opposite sex, and earrings will enhance sensuality, charm and strengthen women’s sexuality.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE AS A TALISMAN

Tanzanite – talisman for couples, it is recommended to present at the 24th anniversary of the wedding as a happy sign of the unbreakable union. At the same time December Birthstone Tanzanite is a third party – it enhances spirituality, stabilizes the aura that evokes clairvoyant abilities and helps in understanding the mysteries of Being.

DECEMBER BIRTHSTONE TANZANITE: THE PRICE AND RARITY OF THE STONE

Tanzanite jewelry, especially prized because of stocks of this stone is left on Earth for more than ten years. It is this reason makes the collectors all over the world to buy December Birthstone, which soon will be a unique and rare.

It is not inferior to the cost of many gems, including the luxurious diamond. After all, it combines extraordinary color palette and the highest geological indicators.

Excellent quality, amazing features and unique December Birthstone Tanzanite are the reasons for which the most discriminating buyers choose this gem.

In addition, December Birthstone Tanzanite jewelry fashion meets the last years: fashion houses today are in search of non-traditional materials and colors. Earrings, pendant, brooch, ring from December Birthstone Tanzanite are signs of high style, luxury and charm attached to its owner.

December Birthstone Turquoise

Turquoise is the birthstone for December — «The Turkey Stone (Turquoise) is a very hard gem of no transparency, yet full of beauty, as given the grace of its color in a sky color out of a green, in the which may be imagine a little milkish perfusion.

Indico (from Lat. «Indian») will give the perfect color of it, and

Turquoise is called in Latin «Turchus» (Turchicus, Turchina, Turchesia, Turchoys); Pliny (

It has its name «Turcicius», either because of its excellent beauty, of because it is brought from the Turks, says Baccius (

Non-transparent Turquoises, and wholly shadowed gems admit of no foils, therefore nothing concerning them must be expected. The Turquoise is throughout of the same beauty, as well internally as externally; it wants no help of tincture to set in off in grace, the constancy of its own beauty without any external help is the support of it, and beareth it up against all defects.

Turquoise is an excellent gem of most simple substance, in every part like itself, most pure in color, and without spot, and the constancy of its beauty is sufficient commendation for itself.

Its luster is dull or waxy, and its colors are, variously, sky-blue, greenish-blue, occasionally apple-green, and sometimes yellowish. This is the genuine or Oriental Turquoise. It is found on small gangs of bog-ore, in silicious shiste, in boulders, etc».

Read also about:

OF ITS MAGICAL PROPERTIES & LEGENDS ABOUT IT

December Birthstone Turquoise

December Birthstone Turquoise. Credits to Koray

The Turquoise has been employed as a medicine—probably under the impulse of the same notions, which are embodied in the following extract from Nicols, with which we close:

Many strange things beyond faith are reported concerning the verities of Turquoise, which nothing but excess of faith can believe.

As that if Turquoise be worn in a ring of gold it will preserve men from falls, and from the bruises proceeding of them, by receiving that harm into itself which otherwise would fall upon the man: yet these verities are said not to be in this gem except the gem be received of gift.

It is likewise said to take away all enmity and to reconcile man and wife.

Rueus says that he saw a Turehoys which upon the death of its muster lest all its beauty and contracted a cleft, which a certain man afterwards buying at an under price returners again to its former glory and beauty, as if says he, by a certain sense it had perceived itself to have found a new master.

The same author says of it, that it dose change, grow pale, and destitute of its native color, if he that wears it do at any time grow infirm or weak; and again upon the recovery of its muster, that it doth recover its own lovely beauty which arises of the temperament of its own natural heat, and becomes ceruleus like a serene heaven.

Turquoise is very delightful to the eye, and is thought much to strengthen the sight, because it does not by its over brightness too much dissipate the visive faculty, nor by its overmuch obscureness too much concentrate the visive faculty.

Baccius in Annotations faith that it is sweat as a gum out of a black stone in Persia, which the Indians call «Pcrose»; the true «Turchoys» is know by the change of its color; in the daytime it is excellently ceruleus or sky colored; at night time by candle light it is green.

Another way of trail of it is this, The lower part is sometimes black, from whence issue final veins which do insinuate themselves into the «supersicies».

A third way which is very much commended for this purpose, dissolve «calx» in water, when anoint the «supersicies» of gem with it, or put a little of this dissolve «calx» upon the «supersicies», and if upon this the «calx» receive a tincture, or color from the gem, this will shew that gem to be a very excellent «Turchoys».

DIGNITY OF TURQUOISE

The excellency of the color of Turquoise does set its price, and the breads of it does much enlarge the price.

It is of great esteem with Princes and much pleasure they take in its beauty; ant it being set in gold they wear in on their fingers.

The Mauritanians use it in physic and call it «Perizegi», or «Perozaa». Mesues uses in «in electuario de gemmis», as Garcias «ab horto» has observed.

Those Turquoises that are of the bigness of a silberd, and have an excellent color like unto a serene sky, and not at all obscured with any black veins, are sold for two hundred crowns a piece and more. The breads of the body of Turquoise does appoint the price. That which is of the exact color of «verdegrase», or like unto a serene sky, without any black veins, in excellent. (Anselm.Boet.p.137.c.17).

TURQUOISE AS A MINERAL, ITS VARIETIES & VALUE

There is another stone called Turquoise—generally Occidental Turquoise—which Professor Nicols (Thomas Nicols, lived in XVII c.) treats as rather an imitation, than a genuine Turquoise. It is supposed to consist of fossil, antediluvian teeth, colored by hydrated copper-oxide or phosphate of iron.

«The principal localities of Turquoise are certain portions of Siberia and France. Turquoise color is light-blue, or dark-blue, or bluish-green. It is easily distinguished from the Oriental species by being internally foliated and streaked—a fact indicating a bony composition—and by its not taking so high a polish.

The blue specimens of Turquoise often turn pale or green with age, but their color may frequently be restored by scraping them and putting them in hot ashes, and then subjecting them to a new polish. MM. Duhamel and Guettard proved many years sago that the bones of animals could be colored by making them eat madder.

The Oriental Turquoise takes a fine polish and is so highly valued in the East, as an ornamental stone, that the Persian Shah retains the best specimens for his own use.

Both kinds are used for numerous purposes in Jewelry, such as for rings, brooches, etc., as also for mounting other precious gems.

The price of the Turquoise has greatly fallen within the last century. The Oriental is generally four times higher than that of the Occidental.

There is said to be a Jeweler in Moscow, who presses a Turquoise two inches long, formerly belonging to Nadir, the Shah of Persia, who wore it as an amulet. He values it at 5.000 rubles.

In the Museum of the Imperial Academy at Moscow is a Turquoise more than three inches long and one inch broad, And among the Imperial Treasures at Moscow is a throne covered with gold and studded with two thousands Turquoises».

November Birthstone Citrine

November Birthstone Citrine – Citrine (yellow crystal) – variety of quartz yellow mineral. The name of this mineral received from Latin citrus – lemon. This natural stone is presented the entire spectrum of yellow, from pale gold to bright orange.

Because of the similarity with topaz, November Birthstone citrine also called false topaz, Brazilian topaz. Madeira Citrine – a rare and surprisingly beautiful variety of natural stone bright orange color, which resembles an orange jelly or honey.

The most unusual is Ametrine (amethyst, citrine) – Stone combines sectors like amethyst and November Birthstone citrine.

Of natural stones used in jewelry, November Birthstone citrine has a strong place, as because of its color perfectly matches with gold. Used to manufacture earrings, necklaces and rings , as in the old days of doing it rings printing.

Read also about: Topaz & Scorpio Birthstone

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE HISTORY

Oh, Portugal – a country brave explorers and Cruel conquistadors, orange groves and sincere romance Fado!

Sultry, romantic and gorgeous – who has ever been in your arms at hot summer, he did not forget any waves licking the hot sand or burning eyes eyed charmer with a red flower in her hair.

He will not forget no sleepless nights under a huge moon or starlight playing with a glass of good wine … we, the children of the north and the fog never understand the spirit of the South, romantic smell the roses and jealousy that is in the curves of the narrow streets, though descended from the pages of romance, and perhaps help us in this cheap souvenirs that intended for «Turistas» – plastic castanets, roughly made straw toys and sets of cards ?

Oh no – here we need to find something really worthwhile, something that is part of the alluring world where everything is made of gold like: Sands and endless beaches, and the famous Madeira wine, golden-orange, like a kiss of the sun, forever imprinted in the title of the same name November birthstone, like the frozen breath of joy …

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE CITRINE HISTORY

November Birthstone Citrine

November Birthstone Citrine. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

First, November Birthstone was sincerely considered as topaz – because it bright lemon-yellow or light orange tint so resembled the color of one of the varieties of this mineral, known since ancient times!

Despite the fact that the jewelry with November Birthstone citrine in ancient Rome and ancient Greece wore scientists and philosophers as talismans to ensure recognition and eloquence, self-titled yellow quartz didn’t have itself name.

Only in the mid-18th century, researcher Valerius identified a golden variety of quartz as a separate species – and it was not easy, because topaz and November Birthstone citrine often looks totally indistinguishable, and the difference lies only in hardness, density and weight, which are different from the large value of topaz.

Here was born the term «Madeira citrine» – so called the most rare and beautiful color of this stone, sunny orange, like a thick honey or orange jelly.

However, there are other citrines – lemon-yellow, fully justifying its designation that went from Latin «citreus» – lemon, or orange- brown, like a drop of amber resin. A most unusual kind November Birthstone citrine – amethyst, November Birthstone citrine or ametrine, bicolor polychrome stone, which, like watermelon tourmaline combines amethyst and citrine sectors.

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE CITRINE ORIGIN & PROPERTIES

November Birthstone Citrine – yellow variety of quartz.

Mohs Hardness: 7.0

The Density: 2.6 g/cm³, glitter glass, completely transparent.

Other names: yellow topaz, western topaz, Spanish topaz, false topaz, Bohemian topaz, Madeira.

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE CITRINE MINES

Natural, natural November Birthstone is rare enough. Basically correct form crystals mined in Brazil and Madagascar, there is also a field in the United States, France, Spain, Scotland, Kazakhstan, Russia (Ural).

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE CITRINE ZODIAC SIGN

First of all, astrologers recommend November Birthstone to Gemini, Virgo and Leo. Citrine jewelry contraindicated to Taurus, Scorpio and Capricorn. Citrine match the Mercury planet.

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE CITRINE COLORS

Natural November Birthstone is dim, its color is not saturated, so often referred to as topaz stone. Bright natural citrine – a rarity in this connection, the stone juicy color is expensive. Crystal yellow-purple color also belongs to the family citrines and called Ametrine. This expensive stone used in the manufacture of luxury jewelry. Homeland best ametrinom – Bolivia. It is produced here bright crystals.

Alas, in nature yellow shades of transparent quartz are rare – that’s why most of November Birthstone in the Middle Ages was «born» in the form of other species of the same mineral family, and then transformed by craftsmen.

The method that was used in this case , would today be called a heat treatment – the fact that when heated to 300-400 º C smoky quartz and amethyst color change, turning … in citrines, as well as indicators of density and hardness with the transparent quartz are the same, then the result was absolutely similar November Birthstone citrine created in the golden color of Mother Nature.

The most unusual method was invented in Russia, the Urals – where large pieces of quartz baked in pastry, getting fashionable at the court of Catherine II, citrines, and in order to avoid fracture of the crystals were removed ready «bread» only after complete cooling.

For small stones existed another way: they were placed in a clay pot, thickly interspersed with ash and put in preheated oven overnight.

Interestingly, of the brown-brown rauch topaz gave pale yellow crystals bright November Birthstone citrine, amethyst of lavender-dark- orange with a reddish tint.

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE CITRINE HEALING PROPERTIES

Even In the Middle Ages it was believed, that November Birthstone ring, worn at night , drives away nightmares and bad thoughts, soothes and provides a quiet night’s sleep.

In India, November Birthstone is an assistant in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Today lithotherapists Recommend November Birthstone citrine for general lifting physical body tone, strengthen memory and increase brain activity.

Headache November Birthstone citrine can also help facilitate the attack, besides the mascot with November Birthstone citrine shows children with speech defects.

Like its «relative» rauchtopaz, November Birthstone citrine is useful for those who want to get rid of drug addiction – but if the first is used in order to stop the use of intoxicating drugs, the latter helps in breaking a period of abstinence and does not give a person back to their previous occupation.

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE CITRINE MYSTICAL PROPERTIES

Energetically, November Birthstone – lucky stone and a positive attitude. He contributes to the normalization of relationships and friendships, as well as makes a man eloquent, persuasive and charming.

This is a mascot for politicians, public figures, people employed PR and public relations, that is, all those sort of activity is in constant contact with lots of people – they are most suitable pendant or a pendant with November Birthstone citrine.

Vulnerable and sensitive lemon quartz makes it more practical and rational calculation teaches healthy – it just needs them to gain self-confidence and composure.

November Birthstone Citrine also can benefit businessmen, especially early in the entrepreneurial path, if the project is fraught with excitement and risk – there will ring with a bright orange stone.

November Birthstone Citrine protects his master in travel and business trips than becomes more useful to business people.

November Birthstone Citrine fit to all, who engaged in «hand-made» creative work: jewelers, sculptors, woodcarvers, restorers cutters. In addition, it helps the native magicians, fortune-tellers, illusionists.

November Birthstone Topaz

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE TOPAZ

Topaz it is a birthstone for November. — The true Topaz of the ancients which commonly and vulgarly in former times has been taken for a Chrysolite, is a transparent gem, of a diluted green color, which seems (as said Boetius — Anselmus Boëtius de Boodt) to have some yellowness added to it. Andreas Baccius said, it is a stone egregiously glorious, and in its kind excelling in virility, and being found it is preferred before other gems.

«When it is found of a yellow greenness, it is not (said Boetius) then properly called «TopaZius», but «Crysopatius», and the mother of the «Smaragde» (today — the Emerald).

In a «Crysopatius» there is a golden splendor, which does shine through a veered, or green color. In a true «Chrysolite» , which is commonly and vulgarly called «Topaz» there is nothing else but a perfect, excellent, glorious, dilute, green color, or a delightful golden splendor; and in a perfect «Topaz» there is found an excellent, glorious, dilute, green color, which is very delightful to the eye; and without any touch or tincture of any other color whatever.

Thus are these three precious gems truly and perfectly distinguished, which Pliny does speak to confusedly of, that nothing of truth can be gathered from him concerning them».—Vide Boetius.,p.104.

Read also about: Citrine

November Birthstone Topaz

November Birthstone Topaz. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

Typically, Topaz is associated with yellow gem. However, Topaz exhibits many other shades of color, such as: grayish, greenish, bluish, and reddish. Topaz may also be colorless as a diamond.

There is a way to change the yellow color of Brazilian Topaz, by heating it to a pale rose-pink and the Topaz is often treated in this way. Only brown-yellow Topazes yield the pink color. The pale yellow gems turn white, when heating.

Blue and pale green topazes are found of large size, and often have better luster than specimens of beryl having similar colors.

ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF THE TOPAZ

By the Hebrew words «פלר» and «פםרה» some do understand the Topaz of the Ancietns; (of which Hebrew words we have before spoken of on the page of the May Birthstone Emerald or «Smaragde») and that because it is green like the Emerald.

Topaz is called in Greek «τοπάζιεν», «τοπάζιον» of Hesych. It is also called «Topazion», from cloudy island of the Red Sea, which is often sought for by Navigators, for which frequent it is called «Topazion», and «Topaz» is so named because it is found in this island.

«Topazion» from whence this name «TopaZion» comes, is a «Trogloditish» word, which in the language of the «Troglodytes», signifies «quaerere», or «to seek».

The «Troglodytes» are Ethiopians, which are extended to Arabia and the Red Sea, who have this name from their frequenting of caverns and caves of the Earth: hence in Greek they are called «Troglodities».

Pliny (Pliny the Elder) l.37.,c.8. said, that «this gem was first brought out of the Island of the «Troglodities», called «TopaZion a quadendo», to Berenice Queen of Egypt, and from thence was called «Topazion»».

It is called in English — «Topaz»; in Italian — «Topazzio»; In French — «Topasse»; in Spanish — «Topazzie»; in German — «ein Topass»

The Egyptian name of Topaz signified primarily a «yellow stone», so probably it could be not the Topaz but the yellow Jasper, known and used in Egypt at a very early date. The Topaz was probably not known earlier than 500 or 600 B.C. in Egypt.

Today, there are a lot of other names of Topaz, such as: «Siberian Diamond» (colorless or blue topaz), «Saxon Peridot» (green topaz), «Brazilian Ruby» (red Brazilian topaz), «Killiecrankie diamond» (colorless Australian topaz), «Mogok diamond» (colorless Burmese topaz), «Physalia», «Pickney».

«November Birthstone» is a modern name of the «Topaz» gemstone, which is used in a birthstone jewelry as a marketing name of this gem, but this name of Topaz has a historical base. It was used in the gem charts of XIX century. For more information about birthstone charts in different countries and religions, you can read, for example,— «The Curious Lore of Precious Stones», written by George Frederick Kunz in 1913.

LEGENDS ABOUT TOPAZ

«Topaz» — It is the nature of Solaris, or Sun-Stone. Cardanus (Girolamo Cardano) in his book of admirable cures, does relate wonders concerning the verities of Chrysolite. He said that with alone powder of it drunk in wine, he cured Cesar Palavicinus of a fever that he had been troubled with all fifteen days, and another Noble-man of Melancholy, and of Melancholy, and on the falling sickness with the same remedy, after that he had long in vain been tormented with the somniferous lotions of Physicians.

The powder of Topaz, is said to be good in Asthmatics passions, and in the Orthopnoea if it be drunk in a convenient liquor. If in fivers it be held under the tongue it is said to quench thirst. It is cold and dry as all other precious stones.

The excellent Topaz in the glory of its virility has been esteemed a stone of great value, and that not only for its innate inbred excellency whereby it is very pleasant to the eye: but because it has been of sacred use, as both old and new Testament do affirm.

Topaz was one of these gems which had a place in one of these four rowers of stones engraved with the names of the tribes of Israel, and set in ouches of gold upon the breast-plate of Judgment, as Exodus 28.17., where it was said of God concerning the order of the precious stones in the breast-plate of Judgement. — «The first row shall be a Sardius and a Topaz, and Carbuncle, this shall be the first row».

Topaz is of esteem, not only for its fun-shine glory; but for that also it has been of sacred use. This is one of those stones which the glory of the seventh foundations of the wall of the New-Jerusalem is discovered to us, as Revel.21.20.

Topaz is so hard that it will endure the file, and it grows into so great a masse, that of times features have been made of it. Juba king of Mauritania wrote concerning Topaz, that «there was a statue of four cubits made of it for Arsinoe the wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus, which was consecrated to the gods».

It is reported of Hadrianus Gulielmus, that at Naples he had a Topaz engraved with these ancient Roman letters:

«Natura deficit.
Fortuna mutatur.
Deus omnia cernit».

In English thus:

«Nature by frailty does daily wast away.
Fortune is turn’d and changed every day.
In all, There us an eye know’s no decay.
Jah see’s for aye».

These that are excellent Topaz, do sparkle forth their glory, and beam forth their delightful rays: there are of much esteem, and of very great worth, price and value.

It is for its grateful aspect of very great esteem. Topaz is so perfectly hard, as that by the heat of fire it may be made diaphanous and void of all color, and thus like the best Sapphire, changed into an admirable Diamond; in so much as it being thus dealt withal, no other stone whatever can better resemble on Oriental Diamond then it will.

Anselmus Boetius said, that he saw one of these that weight scarce two scruples (a unit of weight equal to 20 grains, used by apothecaries.), and it was sold for 2 hundred crowns (XVI c.). The color of which (he said) being separated from it, it (Topaz) was so exactly set in ring, that a skillful jeweler couldn’t know it from a true Diamond.

It is whitened after the same manner that Sapphires are; of which has been before spoken.

Ovid.lib.2. Metamorph. does very splendidly feign a chariot of the Sun made of a Chrysolite, in that saith,

«Aureus axis erat, temo aureus, aurea summa
Curvatura rota, vadiorum argenteus ordo:
Per juga Chrysolithi, positiaque ex ordine gemme
Clara repercusso reddebant lumina Phoebo» — Latin.

We need to mention here that the Ancients mistaken thought that the Topaz is the same gem stone as Chrysolite. Although, in fact, the Chrysolite is the same gem as Peridot.

TOPAZ AS A MINERAL

As we can read in the CYCLOPÆDIA of Art, Science & Literature, Vol. XXXVI of 1819, written by Abraham Rees:

«The Topaz may generally be distinguished from all other minerals by the rhomboidal base of its crystals, the fracture, and cross lamellar structure, and by the longitudinal streaks on its fide planes.

Topaz is less hard and heavy than yellow sapphire, and the latter does not become electric by heating. The same characters distinguish it from spinel: it is further distinguished from Spinel by its double refraction. Green colored topaz is distinguished from beryl by its greater specific gravity, that of topaz being 3.5, and of beryl only 2. The latter cleaves in the direction of its lateral planes, which the topaz does not.

A peculiar property of the Topaz was discovered by Vauquelin, that the powder of this gem changes the syrup of violets to green if it remain in the liquor two or three hours, and this property is common to all the varieties of the topaz.

Mr. Canton, in 1760, found that the Brazil Topaz has the electrical properties of the tourmaline. The topaz is easily counterfeited; and there are factitious ones, which, to the eye, are not inferior to the natural ones, to counterfeit the topaz in glass, fee glass resembling Topaz».

NOVEMBER BIRTHSTONE JEWELRY

For a present time, Topaz is the most popular yellow stone in jewelry. It is used for rings, earrings, necklaces & pendants. Most of the Topazes used in jewelry of the present day come from Brazil or Ceylon.

There are two types of Topazes, which has been divided by jewelers: the oriental Topaz and occidental Topaz. The Oriental Topaz called «The Yellow Sapphire», and the occidental called a «fluo-silicate of alumina».

The occidental topaz category consist three varieties of Topaz, the yellow Topaz, the blue Topaz, and the white Topaz.

The yellow, the prevailing tint, passes from a pale yellow to a rich orange color. Some jewelers call this deep orange tint an oriental topaz. The finest of these come from Villa Rica, Brazil. Saxony also furnishes topazes of a pale yellow, bordering on canary color.

The gem, called «Oriental Topaz» is found also in the Mourne Mountains, Ceylon, Asia Minor, Pegu, Siberia, in Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, and in Ireland.

Blue topazes mined in Brazil, so its often called as «Brazilian Sapphires».

Topaz could also has a pink color. It is produced by exposing the orange topaz to a low red heat: it is called a «Brazilian Ruby» sometimes. However, Pink Topaz could be found in nature sometimes.

AS A ZODIAC SIGN

Topaz is primarily the birthstone for Scorpio (especially blue and purple varieties). It also fits to Gemini, but traditionally, ancient astrological sources attribute it to the Scorpio zodiac sign.

October Birthstone Tourmaline

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE

October Birthstone – October Birthstone Tourmaline is the only mineral, located on the earth, which have a long-lasting source of energy (the sun). So, October Birthstone Tourmaline is called a nugget of energy or electric stone.

Negative ions and low energy polarity generated from this mineral is a sensational new substance being examined by many research centers and laboratories.

The composition of October Birthstone tourmaline comprises: potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, silicon, iodine, fluorine, and other components. A total of 26 trace elements from the periodic table.

Name of the Turmaline Birthstone comes from the Sinhalese Turamali-«colorful». Color of October Birthstone tourmaline depends on the chemical composition of the stone. Tourmalines are green or magenta, rarely yellow. The most valuable stones transparent greenish blue and crimson red color. There are tourmalines polychrome painted in different colors simultaneously.

Read also about: Opal & Libra Birthstone

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE HISTORY

Catherine II just not only loved jewelry – she them truly adored.

Extravagance and splendor of her court became a legend. The Gifts of Empress also were gorgeous – because October Birthstone Tourmaline – changeable stone that era was made ​​primarily hold the luxury jewelry and valuables were also a sign of respect, and the official awards.

Infinitely generous, she herself often received from friends , colleagues and allies fine jewelry – and, of course, could not resist, when in 1777 the Swedish king Gustav VIII gave her a sign of friendship and respect for the delicate carved crimson red grape bunch weight 255 carats, framed by green enamel leaves.

Huge, iridescent stone was like sweet treat that and wanted to taste it – it was the most unusual of Historical stones , and still stored in the Diamond Fund of the Russian Federation. In the old days it was called «ruby Caesar», but later it was found that the gem is not a ruby​​, and perhaps much more interesting and unusual stone.

https://gemfame.com/product-category/ruby-stone-manik-stone/

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE TOURMALINE HISTORY

October Birthstone Tourmaline

October Birthstone Tourmaline. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

October Birthstone Tourmaline (buyers guide) appeared in Europe relatively recently – sailors brought from Ceylon the first samples, in 1703, returning from the Indian colonies.

There is no doubt that India used tourmalines since ancient times, especially since there is this kind of minerals is considered one of the most valuable.

Dutch colonists, at first did not find October Birthstone tourmaline jewelry application – rough tourmaline crystals they were getting out of their pipes of tobacco ash.

Maybe it was because October Birthstone tourmaline has a wonderful ability to electrify when heated – even its name in the language of the inhabitants of the island of Sri Lanka, «turamali» means «attracting the ashes».

October Birthstone Tourmaline, especially red and green varieties, immediately attracted a lot of attention, but they are often confused with rubies, emeralds and spinels.

Thus, in the crown of the Czech kings , which according to legend was killing the one who wears it without having the law, was not inserted ruby, and October Birthstone tourmaline.

October Birthstone Tourmaline same weight of 500 carats and not pink spinel crown adorned Russian Empress Anna Ivanovna.

In Europe, October Birthstone tourmaline becomes popular not too fast, but is another matter Russia , where these stones came from distant India , immediately gained immense popularity.

At the same time, there October Birthstone tourmaline appeared much earlier – in the XVI century . they are widely imported from the East and were used for inlay cups and boxes, pointing barmas Mantle and royal outfits, decorations church utensils, icons and crosses salaries .

the great princes, such as and Mikhail Romanov Ivan Alexeevich adorned hats and wreaths by October Birthstone Tourmalines.

And so since as October Birthstone tourmaline began to extract the Urals, they began to use many times more – necklaces, rings, brooches , snuff-boxes , sometimes as a material for carving small figurines and vessels.

Certainly, a great role in enhancing October Birthstone tourmaline popularity in Russia played a great Faberge, which is extremely fond of this stone and actively used in jewelry and small items of decor.

After the Revolution, October Birthstone tourmaline for a while, seemed have been forgotten – and extract it in Russia have become noticeably smaller, but today the glory of tourmaline is back and on a much larger scale than before.

Unfortunately , the price is transparent , clean and large stones is also increased, so the best quality October Birthstone tourmalines go to the production of high-end piece of jewelry.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE TOURMALINE ORIGIN & PROPERTIES

October Birthstone Tourmaline – mineral of silicate group complex composition comprising a compound of aluminum, boron, manganese and magnesium.

Mohs hardness: from 7.0 to 7.5

The density: from 3 to 3.4 g/cm³, glitter glass, pronounced pleochroism.

Old name – schorl. Trade names of varieties – Brazilian sapphire, ruby Brazilian, Brazilian emerald.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE TOURMALINE MINES

October Birthstone Tourmaline mined in Brazil, Russia, Sri Lanka, Madagascar.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE TOURMALINE ZODIAC SIGN

Astrologically, red, green and watermelon October Birthstone tourmaline suitable Aries, Taurus, Leos, Libra, Scorpio. For capricorn is more useful green. For Aquarius – blue and green. For Sagittarius – Blue and Scorpio – Black.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE TOURMALINE COLORS

October Birthstone Tourmaline – most beautiful of gemstones, each of its species is interesting in its own way.

The most well known red-pink October Birthstone tourmaline, the color of ripe berries like raspberries – they are called rubellite.

Verdelity-dark-green October Birthstone tourmalines, resembling bright emeralds – the second most common.

In third place, you can put a «watermelon» gem – the most amazing views of October Birthstone tourmaline, polychrome stone, various portions of which have the red, then green.

Entire crystal like a piece October Birthstone Tourmaline – Watermelon fickle: it, like this delicious fruit, red and green core of «crust».

However, this does not end of October Birthstone tourmaline colors: among them there indicolite – dark blue mineral that is often reminiscent of sapphire and achroite-clear, colorless stone with a bluish tinge, and bright yellow Canaris and brown dravite and sibirite cherry, and black and opaque schorl gloomy, and the most rare and expensive neon-blue Paraiba tourmaline.

In addition, the color is distributed through the crystal too curious way: different angles, the intensity of color is slightly different and beautiful stone shimmers in the light, and there are minerals with the effect of asterism or «cat’s eye», as well as alexandrite effect that change color depending on the lighting character.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE TOURMALINE HEALING PROPERTIES

As a healer, October Birthstone tourmaline versatile enough due to the large variety of colors.

In general, October Birthstone tourmaline improve sleep, harmonize state of the endocrine and immune systems.

Noteworthy is the ability of October Birthstone tourmaline (schorl especially) have a positive impact on cancer.

Black October Birthstone tourmaline is also indicated in the treatment of neurotic disorders.

Green October Birthstone tourmaline restore nerves after stressful situations.

Red October Birthstone tourmaline, especially rubellites, reduced metabolism, improve complexion, strengthen the potency and sexual function of the body, improve blood circulation and generally beneficial effect on the circulatory system.

Watermelon October Birthstone tourmaline combines the properties and pink, and green of their fellows.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE TOURMALINE MYSTICAL PROPERTIES

Energy of October Birthstone tourmaline long been associated with sexual energy , even considering something like an aphrodisiac.

In India, red-pink October Birthstone tourmaline – the traditional male mascot, granting potency attractiveness to the opposite sex, mutual love.

October Birthstone Tourmaline was not recommended to women, because the stone supposedly could make them too active and insatiable in his personal life.

Green October Birthstone tourmaline – money «decoy» that attracts success and wealth as powerfully as red tourmaline attracts – love.

However, October Birthstone tourmaline able to absorb excess energy and cool feeling, so it should not wear those over 35 years old.

It should be noted that both of these stones – mascots artists, bestowing inspiration, creative energy and recognition of talent.

Multicolored tourmalines – the lucky stones, while carrying luck, creative and erotic impulses, they make life easier, bright and cheery.

Blue October Birthstone tourmaline brings peace and tranquility, promotes wisdom and contemplation.

October Birthstone Tourmaline long time ago gained notoriety – he is considered a stone of witches and wizards, and for good reason: it protects against so-called «Evil forces» and poltergeist helps reflect astral attack or attack yourself.

Colorless October Birthstone tourmaline helps business people in the difficult moments of doing business, it must be worn in the form of beads or as Signet.

October Birthstone Opal

Opal is the birthstone for October. — It is a precious stone which has in it the bright fiery flame of a Carbuncle, the pure refulgent purple of an Amethyst, and a whole sea of Emeralds spring glory, or virescence, end every one of them shining with incredible mixture, and very much pleasure: so that this can’t easily be counterfeited or adulterated as other jewels may.

Boeticus says of Opal, that it is the fairest and most pleasing of all other jewels, by reason of its various colors.

Cardanus says that he bought one for 15 crowns, that he took as much pleasure in, as he could do in a Diamond of 50 aureos (Latin – Gold).

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE COLOR

In many of Opals do appear Sky-color, Purple, Green, Yellow, Red, and sometimes a Black and White or Milky color; but we must not think that all these colors are severally in the jewell, for break but the Opal, and all the variety of colors do perish; by which it doth appear that the variety of colors in the Opal, arises from the reflection of one or more colors; as sometimes is seen in the Rainbow, and may be experienced in a triangular Crystal, where the alone reflection of the light upon the angles, or corners of Crystal, do in the Crystal produce various colors, which otherwise is diaphanous, perfectly transparent, clear, and without color.

The finest species of Opals emit also the yellow of the Topaz and the blue of the Sapphire. Opal is, in one word, a natural prism, which, like the soap bubble or the three cornered glass, de-compounds the sunbeam into its elements. About the cause of this decomposition «doctors disagree». Brewster’s theory seems the most plausible, viz. that this cause is the existence of fissures and cracks in the interior of the mass.

Read also: Tourmaline & Libra Birthstone

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE NAMES

October Birthstone Opal

October Birthstone Opal. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

Professor Nicol notices nine varieties of Opals, all possessing more or fewer of the same general characteristics, Our space will permit our touching; on but one.

We may premise, that the name of Opal is derived from the Greek «δps», eye-the Greeks, who highly valued Opal, believing it to have the power of strengthening the eye. We may add here, to save a fresh reference, that the Greeks fancied it had the effect to conciliate universal good will to its possessor, and therefore named Opal also «paiderδs», i. e. love of children. In the «Apocalypse», Saint John compares the Celestial City, as a whole, to Opal, as exhibiting all colors at once.

The finest of the Opal species is called the precious or noble Opal. Nicols names various parts of the East as producing it, Recent writers contradict him and say that Hungary, Saxony, the Faroe Islands, and South America are its native localities. Opal is found in small gangs and nests of the volcanic porphyry formation.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE IN JEWELRY

Opal is used for rings, necklaces and diadems; the smaller specimens for mounting snuff-boxes, rings, etc. It still stands in very high estimation, though probably not so high as among the Romans, in whose day it was said, that Nonius, a Roman Senator, chose banishment rather than surrender splendid Opal to Mark Anthony. Opal’s present estimation may be judged from the fact that a single large Opal was lately sold in Europe for 150,000 dollars. Opal has never yet been imitated.

The Imperial Mineralogical Cabinet at Vienna contains a precious Opal weighing seventeen ounces; and among the French Jewels is a cloak-el-asp mounted with an Opal, valued at 37, 500 francs. It is surrounded with 197 other Brilliants.

Of the other eight species of Opal we will not here speak, since some idea of them may be gotten from the above description. We can’t better close, than by a touch from our friend Nicols on the «vertues of Opal».

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE MAGIC & SYMBOLISM

It is reported of Opal, that it sharpens the sight of the processors of it, and cloudeth the eyes of those that stand about him, so that they can either not see or not mind what is done before them: for this case Opal is asserted to be safe patron of thieves and thefts; as it is related in Lapidario.

OCTOBER BIRTHSTONE AS A MINERAL

Opal is used to be found near Freiberg in Saxony, but is at present met with only near Kasehau in Upper Hungary.

From want of hardness and of crystalline form, the Opal can scarcely be ranked among the gems. It has, however, in all ages and countries been very highly esteemed.

Among the eastern nations at the present day the Opal ranks higher than it does in Europe; nor is this to be wondered at. From the general seclusion in which not only women, but even men of rank, pus the greater part of their time, the pleasure derived from the possession of gems must depend in a great measure on their intrinsic beauty, on the degree in which they are capable of gratifying, without satiating the taste or vanity of their owners.

In Europe, on the contrary, (with the exception of a few amateurs), gems are considered as mere ornaments being admired less on their own account than for the general homage that they receive from others. Hence the brilliancy, the far-darting luster of a jewel, the-distance from which it con-centers the gaze of by standers on its wearer, is its supreme, merit among us.

The color and fire of the Opal require a near inspection for a full enjoyment of, their beauty, which undoubtedly greatly detracts from its Worth as an ornament.

Fine Opal are extremely rare, and are generally used for ear-drops and rings; sometimes, however, they are set with group and clusters of other gems. When plates of porphyry (The matrix of Opal) can be, procured sufficiently rich in veins of Opal, they form a superb material for snuff-boxes, and similar articles.

Opal is, upon die whole, too soft and fragile to endure the ordinary process of the lapidary; it requires the utmost management in working, and a, moment of inattention is sufficient to destroy its beauty. It is always cut en cabochon.

September Birthstone

Sapphire is the birthstone for September. — The Sapphire is a transparent stone, of a sky-color, precious and very delightful to the eye. The herb Pilosella (also known as Mouse-ear hawkweed) in its flower, and the herb Scorpioides in its flower, have some resemblance of its beauty.

Hieronymus Cardanus makes Sapphire to be the fifth in order of the most noble gems, in his book «De subtilitate» (Basel, 1547); where he likewise said, that it is a stone of an excellent hardness of a ceruleus color and if not diluted or vicious, very pleasing to the eye, in so much as he said, that nothing doth so much recreate the sight as the Smaragde (Emerald) and Sapphire.

OF ITS NAME

The Sapphire is known almost to all nations by this one name «Sapphirus». In hebrew it is called «ספיר», as Exod. 28.18. and not only in Hebrew but in Greek «ζαφείρι», and in Latine it is called «Sapphirus»; in English «Saphire» (XVII c.) and in German «ein Saphir»; in Itatian «Zaffiro»; in French «Sapphyr»; in Spanish «el Zafiro piedra preciosa»; in Hindu language «नीलम» and Arabic «ياقوت أزرق» – «Nilas» and from the place where it growth «Podis», Marbodeus Gallus doth call it «Syrtites».

Sapphire is also the birthstone for Virgo

OF ITS FACULTIES & PROPERTIES

September Birthstone Sapphire

September Birthstone Sapphire. Credits to Gemteck1 @ Flickr

The Sapphire is of a cold and dry faculty even as are most precious stones; it is reported of it, that it is good against feverish distempers, hence this old dipstick.

The best of Sapphires are very comfortable to the eyes, if they be often looked one. It is reported of it, that if it be worn by an adulterer, by loosing its splendor it will discover his adultery; and that the wearing of Sapphire, does hinder the erections that are caused by Venus. But surely, as either lustful thoughts, or this wicked spirit Asmodeus moving them, or stirring up such disorders and irregularities without them, in the body, are the causes of such undue erections of the flesh; so when he withdraws himself, Sapphire has power to hinder them, and not before.

Many have written of the faculties of Sapphire as Galen, Pedanius Dioscorides, Hieronymus Cardanus, Garcias de Cisneros, and Maer the Poet (Aemilius Macer).

It is reported of it, that Sapphire is of so contrary a nature to poisons, that if it be put into a glass with a Spider, or laid upon the mouth of the glass, where the Spider is, the Spider will quickly die. And that Sapphire kept men chaste, and therefore is worn of Priests.

Anselmus Boetius said, that S. Jerome affirmed in his exposition of the 19 chapter of Isaiah, that the Sapphire being worn of any man, procured him favor with Princes, and with all men, pacified his enemies, free him from enchantments, and from bonds, and imprisonments, and that it looses men out of prison, and affwageth the wrath of God (Anselmus Boëtius de Boodt, p.49.).

OF ITS DIGNITY

For its sacred use Sapphire has been esteemed of great worth, as Exod. 28.18. And for its superstitions, the this caution use it with much circumspection.

Among the ancients, and with the Heathen, Sapphire has been of very great authority, because they sought it didn’t a little prevail with God.

The Gentiles consecrated Sapphire to Apollo, because in their enquiries at his oracle, if they had the presence of this gem with them, they imagined they had their answer the sooner.

It is desired of many for its excellent beauty; for it is fair like unto a serene sky: No better a description of its excellent beauty can you find, then that which is given of it, Exodus 24.9, 10. Where it is spoken after the manner of men (not as if the children of Israel saw any appearance of God in the form of man) That the children if Israel saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet, as it were a paved work of Sapphire, and as it were the body of haven in its clearness.

Sapphire through its blue color was the emblem of heaven, the firmament, truth, constancy, and fidelity. The Jewish priests wore robes and breast-plates of this color as significative of heaven.

The Hebrew Rabbis declare this to be the stone of which the rod of Moses and the Tables of the Law received on Mount Sinai were composed.

SAPPHIRE AS A MINERAL

The Oriental Sapphire, ranks the next in value to the Ruby; when perfect, its color is a clear and bright Prussian blue, united to a high degree of transparency. It seldom, however, occurs in this state, more generally the color is a pale blue,passing by degrees, into entirely colorless; not unfrequently, the pale varieties are further deteriorated by streaks and spots of a dark inky blue.

It occurs in rounded pieces, and, rarely, in crystals.of a small size, but for the most part, considerably larger than the Ruby. The primitive crystal of this substance, like that of the preceding gem, is a slightly acute rhomboid, the alternate angles of which measure 86° 38′ and 93° 22′: it also presents nearly the same varieties and modifications of its primitive form. When broken, it displays a conchoidal fracture, seldom exhibiting any appearance of a lamellar structure; in hardness it surpasses the ruby, and yields only to the Diamond. Its specific gravity varies from 4 to 4.1.

The pale, varieties when exposed to a strong fire become entirely colorless without undergoing any other alteration; after this, when cut and polished, they have been often sold for Diamonds; on, this, (some-what fraudulent) account, they bear a considerable value.

Another remarkable variety of Sapphire is the Asterias or Star-stone. This is a semi-transparent Sapphire, often with a reddish purple tinge, in which the summits of the primitive rhomboid are replaced by secondary planes that present a varying chatoyant luster.

The Sapphire in hardness comes next to the Diamond. It is one of the varieties of that vast genus the silex. Its chemical composition is pure alumina crystallized. The color most commonly understood to attach to the Sapphire is blue, and therefore the poets are wont to sing of Sapphire skies. It is also found occasionally gray, white, green and yellow.

In shape Sapphire is usually rhomboidal. Hauy names it the «telesie», and Bournon the «perfect corundum». Being silicious in its nature Sapphire approaches in its hardness close upon the Diamond, while, ill its blue species, it is very beautiful. The deep-blue Sapphire is named by the lapidaries the «male», and the pale-blue the «female».

It is acted upon by neither the acids nor the blowpipe. Sapphire is found mostly in the bells of rivers, especially in Ceylon and in the southern part of the Burman Empire.

OF ITS VALUE

Sapphire is valued according to the excellency of its color, beauty, purity, and greatness: on of the weight of four grains is worth many crowns. The best of Sapphires are as much worth as a Diamond of the same bigness.

Fine specimens bring high prices. The late Mr. Hope purchased one from the Parisian Jardin des Plantes, paying therefor the considerable sum of £3,000.

The French crown contains 59 of Sapphires.

A Sapphire weighing seventy-five and a half carats was sold, says D’r Feuchtwanger, at the auction of Messrs. Rundell & Bridges, for $2,405 (XIX c.).

August Birthstone Peridot

Peridot is the birthstone for August. — This species is divided into two subspecies, viz. Chrysolite & Olivine.

The Chrysolite. — The name Chrysolite (Chrysolitus, a gold-yellow stone) is of Greek origin, but was by the ancients applied to the Topaz.

Its color is pistachio-green, which sometimes approaches to olive-green, seldom to asparagus-green, and pale grass green. Very rarely we observe in the same specimen, besides the green, also in a particular direction a pale cherry red, inclining to broccoli-brown color.

It is brought to Europe from the Levant, and it is said to occur in Upper Egypt, and on the shores of the Red Sea; and it is alleged to have been detected in trap rocks in Bohemia, and the Isle de Bourbon.

This gem, which has an agreeable color, and considerable luster and transparency, is used in jewelry for necklaces, hair ornaments, and for ring-stones, when it it set with a gold foil. It is the softest of the precious stones; jewels of it become dull on the surface, if not carefully worn and kept.

Pliny, who describes it under the name Topaz, says that it is found in the Island Topazos in the Red Sea, and also near the town of Alabastrum, near «Thebais» in Upper Egypt.

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August Birthstone Peridot

August Birthstone Peridot. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

It occurs in angular pieces, (that appear to be original,) sometimes in roundish pieces which seem to be pebbles, and often crystallized.

The crystals are middle-sized, small, and all around crystallized.

It is transparent, and refracts double, particularly when viewed through the broader acuminating planes, and the obliquely opposite brooder lateral planes of N° 1.

It scratches felspar, and sometimes even quartz. It is brittle.

Its colors change, but it does not melt, without addition, before the blowpipe; but with borax, it melts into a transparent green glass.

This mineral has hitherto been found only in a loose state: some mineralogists conjecture that it occurs in veins in serpentine, or greenstone; and also in newer trap rocks.

The Olivine. — The name «Olivine», is given to this spices on account of its predominating olive-green color.

Its color is olive-green, which passes on the one side into asparagus-green, on the other into oil-green, and into a color intermediate between ochre and cream-yellow, and into pale yellowish-brown.

It occurs massive, in grains, in roundish pieces, from the SIze of a hemp-seed to that of a man’s head, which are generally imbedded, and less frequently loose.

When crystallized, which is rarely the case, it is in the form of rectangular four-sided prisms, which are always imbedded.

The massive varieties occur in small and angulo-granular concretions.

Internally the luster is shining and glistening, and is indeterminate between vitreous and resinous.

An imperfect double cleavage is sometimes discoverable. The fracture is small-grained uneven, sometimes passing into imperfect small conchoidal. The fragments are indeterminate angular, and rather sharp-edged.

It is translucent, passing into semi-transparent, seldom
transparent. It is hard, but in a lower degree than chrysolite. It is brittle. It is easily frangible. Specific gravity, 3.225.

It is infusible before the blowpipe without addition; with borax, it melts into a dark-green bead. It loses its color in nitrous acid, the acid dissolving the iron, which iii its coloring ingredient.

It occurs imbedded in basalt, greenstone, porphyry, and lava, and generally accompanied with augite.

Europe.–It occurs in the second~ trap rocks of the Lothians, and other districts in Scotland; and in those of the Hebrides. Sparingly in trap rocks in the north of Ireland. It is found in Iceland; and on the Continent, in Czech Republic, Germany, Austria; Hungary, France, Italy, Spain, &c.

Africa.– Tenerife; St Helena; Isle de Bourbon

America.–Greenland; and the Cordilleras of South America.

Olivine is distinguished from Chrysolite by its paler green colors, external shape, lower luster, fracture, distinct concretions, inferior transparency, inferior hardness, and weighL

Olivine is nearly allied to Augite: this alliance is not so much a consequence of agreement in external characters, 88 rather a similarity in geognostic relations.

Both species occur in the same kind of rock, and the one seldom without the other; and the large masses and grains of olivine sometimes contain small angular grains of augite, which take, as it were, the place of single distinct concretions,–a fact which shews their mutual affinity.

It is distinguished from Augite by its paler colors, external shape, kind of luster, fracture, superior transparency, and its inferior hardness and weight.

It is distinguished from Common Green Garnet, by its greater transparency, inferior hardness and weight.

A yellow substance, nearly allied to olivine, occurs in the Siberian meteoric iron.

July Birthstone Ruby

Ruby is the Birthstone for July. — The Ruby is, chemically, the same as the Sapphire except so far as it is affected by its coloring matter. Ruby ranks next to the Diamond in value. A fine specimen of the Oriental Ruby is rarer than even the Diamond itself. Anciently Ruby went by the name of carbuncle, as it does occasionally now.

It is a species of silex or quartz, and therefore participates in the natural hardness of that stone. As Ruby name indicates, it is red in color—a carmine−red—and a very beautiful ornament for the «ornamental sex». They are found in India, in Ceylon, in Czech Republic, and in Hungary.

OF ITS COLOR

The color of the Ruby, when perfect, is a fun carmine red, in which state it is known by the name of Spinel Ruby; when the tinge verges upon rather pale rose red, it is called Balais Ruby; when the red has a decided shade of orange, it usually goes by the name of Vermeil; when of a yellowish red, it is called Rubicelle: in other varieties, the red by mixture with blue, becomes crimson, violet, and finally indigo blue, which latter is sometimes so deep, as to be scarcely distinguished from black; sometimes, though rarely, a greenish blue is observable; these latter varieties scarcely belong to the Jeweler, but are called by the Mineralogist, Ceylaniteand Pleonaste.

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OF ITS HISTORY & FAMOUS RUBIES

July Birthstone Ruby

July Birthstone Ruby. Credits to Longhairbroad @ Flickr

The largest Ruby known is said to be in the Imperial Russian Crown, in which it is placed under the cross. It was bought for the Empress Anne in Pekin, for 120,000 rubles, by her ambassador to that city.

Tavernier gives drawings of and describes several remarkable Rubies he saw in the East.

First is Ruby that belonged to the King of Persia, nearly as large as an egg and of that shape, of deep color, and of unknown weight. It had been for many years in the treasury of that monarch.

The second figure is that of a Ruby sold as a Ruby to Giaferkan, uncle of the Great Mogul, for 95,000 rupees ($285,000 in those days), and presented by him to the Emperor.

A discharged old Jeweler of the king, haying found some opportunity of examining this Ruby, declared that Giaferkan had been deceived, that it was not a Ruby, and was not worth over 500 rupees. The king’s Jewelers were convened to decide upon the matter, and they declared their belief in its genuineness.

As in the whole Empire of the Great Mogul there was no person more skilled, it was believed, in the knowledge of precious stones than Shah Jehan, then detained a prisoner at Agra by his son, Aureng Zebe, the latter sent the stone to his father, begging his opinion. He confirmed the views of the old Jeweler, and said it was not worth more than 500 rupees. The stone haying been brought back to Aureng Zebe, it was returned to the merchant who sold it, and he was forced to disgorge the money he had received for it. This Ruby was of an egg-shape.

The next is a view of one weighing seventeen and a half carats, in the possession of the King of Visapour, of the shape of half au egg. It is well cut, and of the greatest beauty. It was bought in 1653, for 14,200 new pagodas, (about as many dollars).

We have then described one Ruby «weighing fifty and three-quarters carats, of the second water, uncut, and almond-shaped. It was offered at Banarous for 55,000 rupees».

Tavernier says that Rubies were so scarce in Asia that he found it profitable to take them thither from Europe to sell.

He says he found them so preciously guarded, that a merchant would never shew a Ruby, even if an insignificant one, unless you agreed to give him some trifling present, as a cap or belt, in case you did not buy.

He speaks of one weighing five carats, found in Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and presented by General Wallestein, Duke of Fridland, to the Viceroy of Hungary.

In the Green Vault at Dresden there is a pair of Ruby earrings, which have been valued at 24,000 whalers, though at present they would probably bring a much higher price, owing to these gems being greatly in fashion. The above sum would be about 18, 000 of our dollars (XIX century). The English Crown contains a large heart-shaped Ruby.

OF ITS MYSTERY, LEGENDS & HEALING PROPERTIES

Ludovicus Vartomaunus, a lying old Roman, says that the King of Pegu, in India, had a Ruby which could illuminate a dark room as brilliantly as could the sun!

Andreas Baccius says in his book, De Natura Gemmarum, that if danger approaches the wearer of a Ruby, it will turn black, and, upon the danger being past, resume its color again!

Nicols relates the following of Baccius and a Ruby he possessed enclosed in a gold ring:

«On the fifth of December, 1600, he was traveling with his wife, Catharina Adelmania, to Studgard, and in his travel he observed his Ruby to change its glory into obscuritie, whereupon he told his wife, and prognosticated that evil thereupon would ensue either to himself or her, which accordingly did; for not many days after his wife was taken with a mortal disease and died; after which he saith his Ruby of its own accord did again recover its former luster, glory, beauty, and splendor».

RUBY AS A MINERAL

Ruby’s primitive and most usual form, is the regular octohedron; it also presents the cuneiform octahedron, and a few other varieties; sometimes it occurs in rolled grains. In size Rubies very rarely exceeds eight or ten, carats; the planes of the crystals are smooth and brightly shining, with a vitreous luster, and usually exhibit a lamellar structure; the fracture is fiat conchoidal, and sometimes imperfectly foliated; the lighter colored varieties, when not foul or flawed, are transparent; the dark colored are semitransparent, or even only translucent on the edges.

Its hardness is superior to that of Quartz, but not equal to that of the Oriental Ruby, and the Spinel is considerably harder than the Pleonaste. Its specific gravity varies from 3.6 to 3.7. It is singly refractive, and is infusible without addition before the blowpipe.